3.3 Annotated Literature Review Outline


Annotated Literature Review Outline Example

John Doe

Trevecca Nazarene University

MOL 5800: Special Topics in Organizational Leadership

Dr. David Lomascolo



Annotated Literature Review Outline Example

I. The Relationship of Training to Workplace Productivity

a. Workplace training is seen as a key component of development in successful

organizations. It allows the organization to impart its culture and to invest in its

team members in ways that are mutually beneficial to both the company and the

employee, providing a strong return on investment.

i. Several key benefits are realized through robust training programs.

1. Training and career development increased career adaptability

(Affum-Osei et al., 2020).

2. Employees who reported high levels of career development

satisfaction reciprocated with higher levels of organizational

commitment (Benson et al., 2018).

3. Trust led to high team performance and productivity (Nirwan,


ii. Organizations are turning their focus to training in order to remain


1. Lack of career development was the primary reason for turnover

(Hultman, 2020).

2. As a result of trying to fill skill gaps related to generational

turnover and retirement, “upskilling and reskilling have moved

from ninth to third position on the executive agenda” (Bonic &

Bravery, 2019, p.32).

II. Generational Training Preferences


a. Each generational cohort is presumed to have unique values, perceptions, and

interests. These differences may influence generational cohort’s preferences for

particular training methods.

i. Traditionalists make up the most senior cohort in the workplace today.

1. Traditionalist prefer classroom instruction (Berge & Berge, 2019).

2. Lyons & Kuron (2014) found that “evidence suggests that

neuroticism and narcissism are increasing with successive

generations, whereas self-assuredness and achievement have

declined” (p. S143).

ii. Baby Boomers longevity and experience has influenced their preferences.

1. They value achievement, hierarchy and advancement fulfilment

(Coetzee, Ferreira & Shunmugum, 2017).

2. Boomers “are the first generation in American history to value the

individual instead of the group, so need for individual growth is

part of their DNA” (Fishman, 2016, p. 256).

3. They can be workaholics and don’t expect to be entertained (or

even engaged) in classroom settings (Berge & Berge, 2019).

4. Boomers expect similar standards from other generations: “many

companies experience their biggest generational conflict when

Boomer managers are confronted with younger employees who

don’t ‘fit the mold’ that they themselves created” (Cekada, 2012, p.


iii. Generation X is influenced by living in the shadow of the Baby Boomers.


1. Gen X prefers on-the-job training for and assessment and feedback

training styles (Berge & Berge, 2019).

2. Xers are self-reliant and entrepreneurial: “if put in charge of a

project, or a piece of it, they do not want to be micromanaged. This

gives them a way to stay creative” (Fishman, 2016, p. 254).

3. According to Wiedmer (2015) “Gen X was the generation to

experience the highest education level in the United States to date”

(p. 54); they are seen as geeks and artists who value fast-paced,

engaging work and efficiency.

iv. Millennials’ upbringing has shaped their perspectives on work and


1. Schullery (2013) found that creating an active, engaging

environment speaks to Millennials’ leisure and extrinsic values.

2. Myers and Sadaghiani (2010) noted that “Millennials report that

working and interacting with other members of a team makes work

more pleasurable” (p.283) a result of schools’ use of group-based


3. Solomon and van Coller-Peter (2019) found coaching had positive

effects for Millennials.

v. Generation Z’s workplace emergence is leading to some surprisingly

distinct training approaches than those of previous generations.

1. Gen Z believes in the psychological contract with the organization

(Schroth, 2019, p. 7).

2. They enjoy gamification to learn (Sprinkle & Urick, 2018).


3. Seemiller and Grace (2019) found that “many of Generation Z

students are social learners and like to learn next to, but not with,

others” (p.242).

4. Generation Z likes to see samples of success, including “working

through example problems with the instructor so they are clear

about expectations” (Fromm & Read, 2018, p. 31).

III. Entanglement of Age, Time Period, and Generational Effects

a. Previous studies have indicated that separating the effects of age range, historical

time period, and generation is difficult. Comparing the challenges in

differentiation between these three groups can be helpful in providing direction

and clarity for future studies.

i. Different types of analysis failed to ascribe outcomes to distinct


1. “None was able to fully capture differences attributable to

generational membership” (Costanza et al., 2017, p.149).

2. Deal et al. (2013) found that managerial levels within an

organization had more impact on types of motivation than

generational cohorts.

ii. Few data sets asked the same questions across age groups over time to

establish patterns.

1. “Current approaches adopted for the investigation of generations

across most studies are fundamentally flawed” (Parry & Urwin,

2017, p.146).


iii. The pursuit to understand generations often leads to highlighting their

differences, to the point of stereotyping (Schiller, et al., 2015, p. 6).

1. “Research on generational differences, as a popular topic of media

attention, is susceptible to exaggeration and reductionism” (Lyons

& Kuron, 2013, p. S153).

2. There may not be as much division among generations when it

comes to training as originally anticipated (Berge & Berge, 2019).

IV. Intergenerational Learning

a. Intergenerational learning refers to communication and behaviors between

individuals in different generations that results in mutual influence on one

another. Understanding the commonalities between generations may assist in

highlighting the most effective training methods for the widest range of team


i. Knowledge transfer is impacted by the generational makeup of a group.

1. Intergenerational training groups “possess unique types of expert,

practical, social, and metacognitive knowledge” (Gerpott et al.,

2017, p.207) that they share with one another sporadically through

the collaborative training process.

2. On the other hand, Winnicka-Wejs (2020) found that

generationally homogenous teams represented a low level of trust

and created organizational risk.

ii. Research suggests several universally effective training methods.


1. Ismail (2016) found that there are many initiatives that

organizations can implement to equally empower intergenerational


2. Constructive feedback and mentorship were found to be two

enhancing educational activities that spanned all age groups

(Flippin, 2015).

3. Experiential learning is key for all generations, and “emanates

from making decisions as explicit, tacit and practical bases of

knowledge converge” (Sprinkle & Urick, 2018, p.106).

iii. Customization is another potentially effective training delivery method

across generations.

1. Urick (2017) suggested team members should mix and match

training methods (similar to benefit packages) based on their own

individual preferences.



Affum-Osei, E., Adom Asante, E., Kwarteng Forkouh, S., & Abdul-Nasiru, I. (2020). Career

adaptability and ambidextrous behavior among customer-service representatives: the role

of perceived organizational support. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales

Management, 40(1), 4–18. https://doi-


Benson, J., Brown, M., Glennie, M., O’Donnell, M., & O’Keefe, P. (2018). The generational

“exchange” rate: How generations convert career development satisfaction into

organisational commitment or neglect of work. Human Resource Management

Journal, 28(4), 524–539. https://doi-org.trevecca.idm.oclc.org/10.1111/1748-8583.12198

Berge, Z. L., & Berge, M. B. (2019). The Economic ABCs of Educating and Training

Generations X, Y, and Z. Performance Improvement, 58(5), 44–53. https://doi-


Bonic, I., & Bravery, K. (2019). Multiple Generations, Strategic Rewards and the Shifting Shape

of Work. Benefits Quarterly, 35(4), 29–33.



Cekada, T. L. (2012). Training a Multigenerational Workforce. Professional Safety, 57(3), 40–44.



Coetzee, M., Ferreira, N., & Shunmugum, C. (2017). Psychological career resources, career

adaptability and work engagement of generational cohorts in the media industry. South

African Journal of Human Resource Management, 15(1), 1–12. https://doi-



Costanza, D. P., Darrow, J. B., Yost, A. B., & Severt, J. B. (2017). A Review of Analytical

Methods Used to Study Generational Differences: Strengths and Limitations. Work,

Aging and Retirement, 3(2), 149–165. https://doi-


Deal, J. J., Stawiski, S., Graves, L., Gentry, W. A., Weber, T. J., & Ruderman, M. (2013).

Motivation at Work: Which Matters More, Generation or Managerial Level? Consulting

Psychology Journal: Practice & Research, 65(1), 1–16. https://doi-


Fishman, A. A. (2016). How generational differences will impact America’s aging workforce:

Strategies for dealing with aging millennials, generation X, and baby boomers. Strategic

HR Review, 15(6), 250-257. Retrieved from



Flippin, C. S. (2015). Intergenerational Appreciative Inquiry Helps Managers Move Beyond

Generational Misconceptions in the Workplace. AI Practitioner, 17(2), 36–

39. https://doi-org.trevecca.idm.oclc.org/10.12781/978-1-907549-23-6-4

Fromm, J., & Read, A. (2018). Marketing to Gen Z: the rules for reaching this vast and very

different generation of influencers. New York: AMACOM.

Gerpott, F.H., Lehman-Willenbrock, N., & Voelpel, S.C. (2017). A Phase Model of

Intergenerational Learning in Organizations. Academy of Management Learning &

Education, 16(2), 193–216. https://doi-


Hultman, K. (2020). Building a Culture of Employee Optimization. Organization Development

Journal, 38(2), 35–48.




Ismail, M. (2016). Cultural Values and Career Goal of Gen-X and Gen-Y: A Conceptual

Framework. Global Business & Management Research, 8(2), 1–18.



Lyons, S., & Kuron, L. (2014). Generational differences in the workplace: A review of the

evidence and directions for future research. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 35,

S139–S157. https://doi-org.trevecca.idm.oclc.org/10.1002/job.1913

Myers, K. K., & Sadaghiani, K. (2010). Millennials in the workplace: A communication

perspective on millennials’ organizational relationships and performance. Journal of

Business and Psychology, 25(2), 225-238.


Nirwan, V. S. (2014). Interpersonal Trust and Team Performance: A Quantitative Study. Journal

of Organisation & Human Behaviour, 3(4), 10–14.



Parry, E., & Urwin, P. (2017). The Evidence Base for Generational Differences: Where Do We

Go from Here? Work, Aging and Retirement, 3(2), 140–148. https://doi-


Schiller, M., Whitehouse, P., & Moehle, M. (2015). Intergenerational Appreciative Inquiry in

Conversation and in Action. AI Practitioner, 17(2), 5–8. https://doi-



Schroth, H. (2019). Are You Ready for Gen Z in the Workplace? California Management

Review, 61(3), 5–18. https://doi-org.trevecca.idm.oclc.org/10.1177/0008125619841006

Schullery, N. M. (2013). Workplace Engagement and Generational Differences in

Values. Business Communication Quarterly, 76(2), 252–265. https://doi-


Seemiller, C., & Grace, M. (2019). Generation Z: a century in the making. London: Routledge.

Solomon, C., & van Coller-Peter, S. (2019). How coaching aligns the psychological contract

between the young millennial professional and the organisation. South African Journal of

Human Resource Management, 17(1), 1–11. https://doi-


Sprinkle, T. A., & Urick, M. J. (2018). Three generational issues in organizational learning:

Knowledge management, perspectives on training and “low-stakes” development. The

Learning Organization, 25(2), 102-112.


Urick, M. (2017). Adapting training to meet the preferred learning styles of different

generations. International Journal of Training & Development, 21(1), 53–59. https://doi-


Wiedmer, T. (2015). Generations do differ: Best practices in leading traditionalists, boomers, and

generations X, Y, and Z. Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin, 82(1), 51-58. Retrieved

from https://trevecca.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search-proquest-


Winnicka-Wejs, A. (2020). Deficits and Potentials: How Risk Involving Generational

Characteristics Can Be Reduced Thanks to Human Capital Multigenerationality. Human


Resource Management / Zarzadzanie Zasobami Ludzkimi, 133(2), 41–46. https://doi-


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