Running head: ANNOTATED LITERATURE REVIEW OUTLINE 1
Annotated Literature Review Outline Example
Trevecca Nazarene University
MOL 5800: Special Topics in Organizational Leadership
Dr. David Lomascolo
ANNOTATED LITERATURE REVIEW OUTLINE 2
Annotated Literature Review Outline Example
I. The Relationship of Training to Workplace Productivity
a. Workplace training is seen as a key component of development in successful
organizations. It allows the organization to impart its culture and to invest in its
team members in ways that are mutually beneficial to both the company and the
employee, providing a strong return on investment.
i. Several key benefits are realized through robust training programs.
1. Training and career development increased career adaptability
(Affum-Osei et al., 2020).
2. Employees who reported high levels of career development
satisfaction reciprocated with higher levels of organizational
commitment (Benson et al., 2018).
3. Trust led to high team performance and productivity (Nirwan,
ii. Organizations are turning their focus to training in order to remain
1. Lack of career development was the primary reason for turnover
2. As a result of trying to fill skill gaps related to generational
turnover and retirement, “upskilling and reskilling have moved
from ninth to third position on the executive agenda” (Bonic &
Bravery, 2019, p.32).
II. Generational Training Preferences
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a. Each generational cohort is presumed to have unique values, perceptions, and
interests. These differences may influence generational cohort’s preferences for
particular training methods.
i. Traditionalists make up the most senior cohort in the workplace today.
1. Traditionalist prefer classroom instruction (Berge & Berge, 2019).
2. Lyons & Kuron (2014) found that “evidence suggests that
neuroticism and narcissism are increasing with successive
generations, whereas self-assuredness and achievement have
declined” (p. S143).
ii. Baby Boomers longevity and experience has influenced their preferences.
1. They value achievement, hierarchy and advancement fulfilment
(Coetzee, Ferreira & Shunmugum, 2017).
2. Boomers “are the first generation in American history to value the
individual instead of the group, so need for individual growth is
part of their DNA” (Fishman, 2016, p. 256).
3. They can be workaholics and don’t expect to be entertained (or
even engaged) in classroom settings (Berge & Berge, 2019).
4. Boomers expect similar standards from other generations: “many
companies experience their biggest generational conflict when
Boomer managers are confronted with younger employees who
don’t ‘fit the mold’ that they themselves created” (Cekada, 2012, p.
iii. Generation X is influenced by living in the shadow of the Baby Boomers.
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1. Gen X prefers on-the-job training for and assessment and feedback
training styles (Berge & Berge, 2019).
2. Xers are self-reliant and entrepreneurial: “if put in charge of a
project, or a piece of it, they do not want to be micromanaged. This
gives them a way to stay creative” (Fishman, 2016, p. 254).
3. According to Wiedmer (2015) “Gen X was the generation to
experience the highest education level in the United States to date”
(p. 54); they are seen as geeks and artists who value fast-paced,
engaging work and efficiency.
iv. Millennials’ upbringing has shaped their perspectives on work and
1. Schullery (2013) found that creating an active, engaging
environment speaks to Millennials’ leisure and extrinsic values.
2. Myers and Sadaghiani (2010) noted that “Millennials report that
working and interacting with other members of a team makes work
more pleasurable” (p.283) a result of schools’ use of group-based
3. Solomon and van Coller-Peter (2019) found coaching had positive
effects for Millennials.
v. Generation Z’s workplace emergence is leading to some surprisingly
distinct training approaches than those of previous generations.
1. Gen Z believes in the psychological contract with the organization
(Schroth, 2019, p. 7).
2. They enjoy gamification to learn (Sprinkle & Urick, 2018).
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3. Seemiller and Grace (2019) found that “many of Generation Z
students are social learners and like to learn next to, but not with,
4. Generation Z likes to see samples of success, including “working
through example problems with the instructor so they are clear
about expectations” (Fromm & Read, 2018, p. 31).
III. Entanglement of Age, Time Period, and Generational Effects
a. Previous studies have indicated that separating the effects of age range, historical
time period, and generation is difficult. Comparing the challenges in
differentiation between these three groups can be helpful in providing direction
and clarity for future studies.
i. Different types of analysis failed to ascribe outcomes to distinct
1. “None was able to fully capture differences attributable to
generational membership” (Costanza et al., 2017, p.149).
2. Deal et al. (2013) found that managerial levels within an
organization had more impact on types of motivation than
ii. Few data sets asked the same questions across age groups over time to
1. “Current approaches adopted for the investigation of generations
across most studies are fundamentally flawed” (Parry & Urwin,
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iii. The pursuit to understand generations often leads to highlighting their
differences, to the point of stereotyping (Schiller, et al., 2015, p. 6).
1. “Research on generational differences, as a popular topic of media
attention, is susceptible to exaggeration and reductionism” (Lyons
& Kuron, 2013, p. S153).
2. There may not be as much division among generations when it
comes to training as originally anticipated (Berge & Berge, 2019).
IV. Intergenerational Learning
a. Intergenerational learning refers to communication and behaviors between
individuals in different generations that results in mutual influence on one
another. Understanding the commonalities between generations may assist in
highlighting the most effective training methods for the widest range of team
i. Knowledge transfer is impacted by the generational makeup of a group.
1. Intergenerational training groups “possess unique types of expert,
practical, social, and metacognitive knowledge” (Gerpott et al.,
2017, p.207) that they share with one another sporadically through
the collaborative training process.
2. On the other hand, Winnicka-Wejs (2020) found that
generationally homogenous teams represented a low level of trust
and created organizational risk.
ii. Research suggests several universally effective training methods.
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1. Ismail (2016) found that there are many initiatives that
organizations can implement to equally empower intergenerational
2. Constructive feedback and mentorship were found to be two
enhancing educational activities that spanned all age groups
3. Experiential learning is key for all generations, and “emanates
from making decisions as explicit, tacit and practical bases of
knowledge converge” (Sprinkle & Urick, 2018, p.106).
iii. Customization is another potentially effective training delivery method
1. Urick (2017) suggested team members should mix and match
training methods (similar to benefit packages) based on their own
ANNOTATED LITERATURE REVIEW OUTLINE 8
Affum-Osei, E., Adom Asante, E., Kwarteng Forkouh, S., & Abdul-Nasiru, I. (2020). Career
adaptability and ambidextrous behavior among customer-service representatives: the role
of perceived organizational support. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales
Management, 40(1), 4–18. https://doi-
Benson, J., Brown, M., Glennie, M., O’Donnell, M., & O’Keefe, P. (2018). The generational
“exchange” rate: How generations convert career development satisfaction into
organisational commitment or neglect of work. Human Resource Management
Journal, 28(4), 524–539. https://doi-org.trevecca.idm.oclc.org/10.1111/1748-8583.12198
Berge, Z. L., & Berge, M. B. (2019). The Economic ABCs of Educating and Training
Generations X, Y, and Z. Performance Improvement, 58(5), 44–53. https://doi-
Bonic, I., & Bravery, K. (2019). Multiple Generations, Strategic Rewards and the Shifting Shape
of Work. Benefits Quarterly, 35(4), 29–33.
Cekada, T. L. (2012). Training a Multigenerational Workforce. Professional Safety, 57(3), 40–44.
Coetzee, M., Ferreira, N., & Shunmugum, C. (2017). Psychological career resources, career
adaptability and work engagement of generational cohorts in the media industry. South
African Journal of Human Resource Management, 15(1), 1–12. https://doi-
ANNOTATED LITERATURE REVIEW OUTLINE 9
Costanza, D. P., Darrow, J. B., Yost, A. B., & Severt, J. B. (2017). A Review of Analytical
Methods Used to Study Generational Differences: Strengths and Limitations. Work,
Aging and Retirement, 3(2), 149–165. https://doi-
Deal, J. J., Stawiski, S., Graves, L., Gentry, W. A., Weber, T. J., & Ruderman, M. (2013).
Motivation at Work: Which Matters More, Generation or Managerial Level? Consulting
Psychology Journal: Practice & Research, 65(1), 1–16. https://doi-
Fishman, A. A. (2016). How generational differences will impact America’s aging workforce:
Strategies for dealing with aging millennials, generation X, and baby boomers. Strategic
HR Review, 15(6), 250-257. Retrieved from
Flippin, C. S. (2015). Intergenerational Appreciative Inquiry Helps Managers Move Beyond
Generational Misconceptions in the Workplace. AI Practitioner, 17(2), 36–
Fromm, J., & Read, A. (2018). Marketing to Gen Z: the rules for reaching this vast and very
different generation of influencers. New York: AMACOM.
Gerpott, F.H., Lehman-Willenbrock, N., & Voelpel, S.C. (2017). A Phase Model of
Intergenerational Learning in Organizations. Academy of Management Learning &
Education, 16(2), 193–216. https://doi-
Hultman, K. (2020). Building a Culture of Employee Optimization. Organization Development
Journal, 38(2), 35–48.
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Ismail, M. (2016). Cultural Values and Career Goal of Gen-X and Gen-Y: A Conceptual
Framework. Global Business & Management Research, 8(2), 1–18.
Lyons, S., & Kuron, L. (2014). Generational differences in the workplace: A review of the
evidence and directions for future research. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 35,
Myers, K. K., & Sadaghiani, K. (2010). Millennials in the workplace: A communication
perspective on millennials’ organizational relationships and performance. Journal of
Business and Psychology, 25(2), 225-238.
Nirwan, V. S. (2014). Interpersonal Trust and Team Performance: A Quantitative Study. Journal
of Organisation & Human Behaviour, 3(4), 10–14.
Parry, E., & Urwin, P. (2017). The Evidence Base for Generational Differences: Where Do We
Go from Here? Work, Aging and Retirement, 3(2), 140–148. https://doi-
Schiller, M., Whitehouse, P., & Moehle, M. (2015). Intergenerational Appreciative Inquiry in
Conversation and in Action. AI Practitioner, 17(2), 5–8. https://doi-
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Schroth, H. (2019). Are You Ready for Gen Z in the Workplace? California Management
Review, 61(3), 5–18. https://doi-org.trevecca.idm.oclc.org/10.1177/0008125619841006
Schullery, N. M. (2013). Workplace Engagement and Generational Differences in
Values. Business Communication Quarterly, 76(2), 252–265. https://doi-
Seemiller, C., & Grace, M. (2019). Generation Z: a century in the making. London: Routledge.
Solomon, C., & van Coller-Peter, S. (2019). How coaching aligns the psychological contract
between the young millennial professional and the organisation. South African Journal of
Human Resource Management, 17(1), 1–11. https://doi-
Sprinkle, T. A., & Urick, M. J. (2018). Three generational issues in organizational learning:
Knowledge management, perspectives on training and “low-stakes” development. The
Learning Organization, 25(2), 102-112.
Urick, M. (2017). Adapting training to meet the preferred learning styles of different
generations. International Journal of Training & Development, 21(1), 53–59. https://doi-
Wiedmer, T. (2015). Generations do differ: Best practices in leading traditionalists, boomers, and
generations X, Y, and Z. Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin, 82(1), 51-58. Retrieved
Winnicka-Wejs, A. (2020). Deficits and Potentials: How Risk Involving Generational
Characteristics Can Be Reduced Thanks to Human Capital Multigenerationality. Human
ANNOTATED LITERATURE REVIEW OUTLINE 12
Resource Management / Zarzadzanie Zasobami Ludzkimi, 133(2), 41–46. https://doi-
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