The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)/Internet Protocol (IP)

The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)/Internet Protocol (IP) was designed before the Open Source Interconnect (OSI) model. What this means is the latter was built on the concept of the former. Nonetheless, both models reference the standards and frameworks upon which networks are created, and networking devices are interconnected. The OSI model, however, is not practically employed in communication, while the TCP/IP is utilized for connection and communication via the network.

They both serve the communication purpose; however, the OSI transport layer guarantees delivery of data packets, which may not be the case for TCP/IP. What this means is TCP/IP lacks a well-defined communication session as compared to the OSI model. For that reason, it only focuses on the transfer and routing of data and information among varied networks. This also implies that the OSI is a communication access point between the network and the users. Even with these shortcomings, the TCP/IP reference model remains reliable.

Both protocols are defined by layers that control the movement of packets from the source to the final destination. The number of layers in both the OSI and the TCP/IP is different. The former has seven layers namely the physical, datalink, the network, the transport, the session, the presentation, and the application layers. Conversely TCP/IP has only four layers namely the link, the internet, the transport, and the application layers.

Since both models follow a layered architecture, each layer is designed to serve a specific purpose, and there are specific standards that govern that particular layer. The rules in one layer cannot work on the preceding or succeeding layers.

The ISO follows an upward and downward movement of data packets from the physical to the application layer. The TCP/IP, on the other hand, interconnects nodes, and that implies that it follows a horizontal approach.

The models serve distinct purposes. Even though the protocols for both are arranged as per the number of layers, the OSI strictly serves the function of encapsulation and layering while the TCP/IP is slightly looser on this purpose and only serves the protocol oriented standard; meaning that it is a type of protocol that allows communication among nodes in a given network.

The OSI was developed as a generic tool, and it acts as a guidance model upon which networking experts can build viable networks. On the other hand, the TCP/IP is an implementation of the OSI model. All manufacturers that build networking components and products also follow these logical models to ensure compatibility.

With the OSI model, services, interfaces, and protocols are clearly distinguished, but there is no clarity regarding these concepts in the case of TCP/IP; meaning that the OSI model was first designed and the protocols for each layer developed but in the case of TCP/IP, the protocols were outlined first before the model was developed.

The routing approaches and protocols that govern both models are different. The TCP/IP utilizes the Internet layer while the OSI employs the Network layer. What this implies is the former is a client-server framework designed to transmit data over the internet while the latter is a theoretical model employed in computing. The OSI model is also more comprehensive, well-documented and provides a detailed explanation of the standards and protocols as compared to the TCP/IP.

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