Manuel loved the outdoors and loved playing softball. There was no better way to spend a weekend than on the diamond hitting the ball and cooking burgers on the park grill.

Manuel loved the outdoors and loved playing softball. There was no better way to spend a weekend than on the diamond hitting the ball and cooking burgers on the park grill.

“Hey Jose, the great game this afternoon,” Manuel said to his friend.

“Yep,” Jose replied. “I loved how you hit the ball over that right fielder’s head. I think he is still running after it.”

“That was a lucky hit. I couldn’t do that again if I tried,” said Manuel.

“When is soup on? I’m getting hungry for one of your ¾ pound hamburgers with all of the fixings,” asked Jose.

“Soon brother, real soon,” said Manuel. “Can you hand me my Coke can on the bench other there?”

“Sure thing amigo,” replied Jose while handing the Coke can to Manuel.

“Yikes!” exclaimed Manuel after he spits out the Coke. “There was a bee in the can and it stung the roof of my mouth.”

Within a few minutes, Manuel developed generalized hives on his face and upper body and experienced shortness of breath and chest pains. The paramedics were called and quickly transported Manuel to the local emergency room where he was treated with epinephrine.


Answer the following questions and save your responses in a Microsoft Word document. Provide a scholarly resource to support your answers.

  1. Manuel is experiencing a hypersensitivity reaction. What are hypersensitivity reactions?
  2. Briefly describe the different types of hypersensitivity reactions.
  3. What type of hypersensitivity reaction is Manuel likely experiencing and how do you know?
  4. Is this an antibody or T-cell mediated response? What class of antibodies or type of T-cells are involved?
  5. Why was epinephrine administered and how does epinephrine work in this case?


1):- The hypersensitivity reactions are immune responses that are exaggerated against an antigen Or allergen. It is a condition in which the normally protective immune system has a harmful effect on the body. The allergens may be food, pollen, animal dander, etc.

2):- There are four types of hypersensitivity reaction

TYPE I: It is a reaction mediated by IgE antibodies.

Examples:- Allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis, anaphylaxis, etc.

TYPE II:- It is a cytotoxic reaction mediated by IgG Or IgM antibodies.

Examples:- Red blood cell transfusion reaction, hemolytic disease of the newborn, etc.

TYPE III:- IT IS reaction mediated by immune complexes.

Example:- post-streptococcal glomerular nephritis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus.

TYPE IV:- It’s a delayed reaction mediated by a cellular response.

Examples:- Contact dermatitis, multiple sclerosis.

3) Manuel is likely experiencing a TYPE I hypersensitivity reaction. The reason is the bee may have the pollen dander on its body and they are intaken by the Manuel. The pollen dander is of an allergen in TYPE I hypersensitivity reaction. The pollen dander cause Anaphylactic shock which including shortness of breath, swelling, gives.

4) The class of antibodies involved are IgE antibodies.

–> The allergen-specific IgE antibodies are bind to mast cells through their Fc receptor. When specific allergen binds to the IgE, the crosslinking of IgE induces degranulation of mast cells which causes anaphylaxis.

5) epinephrine is one of the best medication choices for the treatment of anaphylaxis. Epinephrine has vasoconstrictor effects, it prevents or decreases upper airway mucosal oedema ( laryngeal oedema), hypotension, shock in anaphylaxis. Epinephrine also has an important bronchodilator and cardiac inotropic and chronotropic effects which are used to treat anaphylaxis.

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