ACCOUNTING, FINANCE, SPSS

All Rights Reserved
Business Research Methods
© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T), 2012
4– *

All Rights Reserved
Business Research Methods
© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T), 2012
4– *

Developing Theoretical Framework

and Setting the Objectives
发展理论框架并设定目标
PART 2
CHAPTER 4

All Rights Reserved
Business Research Methods
© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T), 2012
4– *

LEARNING OUTCOMES
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
Comprehend the need for a framework in the research process
Understand what the terms variables and constructs mean and differentiate the different types of variables
Describe the theory and theoretical framework and how these two terms relate to each other
Describe the concept and conceptual framework and how these two terms relate to each other
学习完本章后,您应该能够:理解研究过程中对框架的需求了解变量和构造一词的含义,并区分不同类型的变量描述理论和理论框架,以及这两个术语如何相互关联描述概念和概念框架以及这两个术语如何相互关联

All Rights Reserved
Business Research Methods
© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T), 2012
4– *

LEARNING OUTCOMES (cont.)
Know how to develop a theoretical framework
Understand the importance and types of research objectives and research questions
Comprehend what is a hypothesis and how to develop them
知道如何建立理论框架了解研究目标和研究问题的重要性和类型理解什么是假设以及如何发展它们

All Rights Reserved
Business Research Methods
© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T), 2012
4– *

4.1 The Need for a Framework
A research framework is the researcher’s perspective on how the interrelated concepts and variables in a study fit together.
研究框架是研究人员对研究中相互关联的概念和变量如何相互配合的观点。

All Rights Reserved
Business Research Methods
© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T), 2012
4– *

4.2 Variables
Variables are characteristics or attributes of cases whose behaviour or characteristics we study
Variables could occur in any form
Variables can take on differing or varying values
Variables are things that we measure, control or manipulate in an investigation
变量是我们研究其行为或特征的案例的特征或属性变量可以任何形式出现变量可以采用不同或变化的值变量是我们在调查中测量,控制或操纵的事物

All Rights Reserved
Business Research Methods
© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T), 2012
4– *

4.2.1 Types of Variables
Dependent Variable (DV) =criterion, exogenous, outcome
Independent Variable (IV) =predictor, endogenous, explanatory
Intervening (IIV)
Moderating (MV)
因变量(DV)=标准,外生,结果自变量(IV)=预测变量,内生的,解释性的干预(IIV)审核(MV)

All Rights Reserved
Business Research Methods
© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T), 2012
4– *

Dependent Variable (DV)
A variable which can be predicted and explained. Variation in the dependent variable is what a researcher tries to explain.
可以预测和解释的变量。 研究人员试图解释因变量的变化。

All Rights Reserved
Business Research Methods
© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T), 2012
4– *

Independent Variable (IV)
The variable that is predicted to be associated with or explains the variation in the dependent variable.
预测与因变量的变化相关联或解释该变量的变量。

All Rights Reserved
Business Research Methods
© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T), 2012
4– *

The relationship between the independent and dependent variables自变量和因变量之间的关系

All Rights Reserved
Business Research Methods
© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T), 2012
4– *

Moderating Variable (MV)调节变量(MV)
A moderating variable (MV) or moderator is a qualitative (e.g. sex, race, class) or quantitative (e.g. level of reward) variable that affects the direction and/or strength of the relation between an independent variable and a dependent variable.
调节变量(MV)或调节者是定性变量(例如性别,种族,阶级)或定量变量(例如奖励水平),会影响自变量与因变量之间关系的方向和/或强度。

All Rights Reserved
Business Research Methods
© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T), 2012
4– *

Moderating Variable (MV)

(cont.)

All Rights Reserved
Business Research Methods
© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T), 2012
4– *

Intervening Variable (IIV)
Those factors that theoretically affect the observed phenomenon but cannot be seen, measured or manipulated; its effect must be inferred from the effects of the independent and moderator variables on the observed phenomenon (Tuckman, 1972).

All Rights Reserved
Business Research Methods
© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T), 2012
4– *

Intervening Variable (IIV)

(cont.)
Presence of this variable strengthens the link between the independent and dependent variables.
It surfaces between the time the independent variable operates to influence the dependent variable and their impact on the dependent variable.

All Rights Reserved
Business Research Methods
© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T), 2012
4– *

The relationship between all of the mentioned variables can be illustrated diagrammatically as follows.

All Rights Reserved
Business Research Methods
© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T), 2012
4– *

4.2.2 What is a Construct?
A construct is an attribute or characteristic expressed in an abstract, general way.

Construct Brand equity
Variable Brand awareness

All Rights Reserved
Business Research Methods
© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T), 2012
4– *

4.3 Theory and Theoretical Framework
4.3.1 Theory
Functions as explanations, descriptions or predictions about phenomenon particular to a conceptual model
acts as a bridge between or amongst variables

4.3.2 Theoretical Framework
Is a collection of interrelated concepts that can hold or support a theory of a research work and guide a research.

All Rights Reserved
Business Research Methods
© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T), 2012
4– *

4.4.1 Concept
An intangible image or symbolic representation of an abstract idea.

4.4.2 Conceptual Framework:
It is the operationalization of the theory showing the relationships of the different constructs in a research study.

4.4 Concepts and Conceptual Framework

All Rights Reserved
Business Research Methods
© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T), 2012
4– *

A conceptual framework can be formulated by these four steps:
Cite the conceptual framework or paradigm
Identify the variables
Point out the dependent and intervening variables
Show the direction of the study

All Rights Reserved
Business Research Methods
© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T), 2012
4– *

4.5 Developing the Theoretical Framework
Theoretical framework is a logically developed, described and elaborated network of associations among the variables deemed relevant to the problem

All Rights Reserved
Business Research Methods
© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T), 2012
4– *

Features of theoretical framework
Specify the theory used
Identify, discuss and label the variables
Discuss and explain directions of the relationships
Uses a schematic diagram to assist the interpretation

All Rights Reserved
Business Research Methods
© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T), 2012
4– *

A schematic diagram of a theoretical framework: Modeling Satisfaction and Behavioural Intention

All Rights Reserved
Business Research Methods
© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T), 2012
4– *

4.6 Setting Research Objectives
Research Objective
is a clear and concise statement of the purpose and aim of the study which essentially summarises what needs to be achieved by the study
provides an overview or the big picture of what is intended to be achieved

All Rights Reserved
Business Research Methods
© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T), 2012
4– *

4.6.1 Research Questions

Derived from the problem statement
Provide the very basic foundation of research work
Specifically states what a researcher will attempt to answer

All Rights Reserved
Business Research Methods
© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T), 2012
4– *

4.6.2 Developing Hypothesis

An educated guess or prediction of the relationship between one or more factors (variables/constructs) identified in the study in the manner that it can be tested statistically.

All Rights Reserved
Business Research Methods
© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T), 2012
4– *

Hypothesis Construction
If-then statements or proposition

Example: If employees are more healthy, then they will take sick leaves less frequently.
Directional hypotheses

Example: The higher the motivation towards work, the greater is the job performance.

All Rights Reserved
Business Research Methods
© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T), 2012
4– *

Non-directional hypotheses

Example: There is a difference between the work ethic values of American and Asian employees.
Null and alternate hypotheses

Example: The null statement is expressed as no (significant) relationship between two variables or no (significant) difference between two groups.
Hypothesis Construction (cont.)

All Rights Reserved
Business Research Methods
© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T), 2012
4– *

Alternate hypotheses.

Example: There is a difference in the mean satisfaction level between men and women
(μM ≠μW).
Where,
μM is the mean satisfaction level of men
μW is the mean satisfaction level of women
Hypothesis Construction

(cont.)

All Rights Reserved
Business Research Methods
© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T), 2012
4– *

With reference to the theoretical framework as previously shown, these are the hypotheses for the study, which are stated in the directional hypothesis format.
H1: The higher the restaurant service/product dimension (service quality, product quality and atmospherics quality), the higher the satisfaction level.
H2: The higher the marketing dimension (brand image and customer relationship management), the higher the satisfaction level.
H3: The higher the restaurant service/product dimension (service quality, product quality and atmospherics quality), the higher the revisit intention.

All Rights Reserved
Business Research Methods
© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T), 2012
4– *

H4: The higher the restaurant marketing dimensions (brand image and customer relationship management), the higher the revisit intention.
H5: The higher the satisfaction level, the higher the revisit intention.
H6: The higher the satisfaction level, the stronger the intention to recommend to others.
H7: The higher the revisit intentions, the stronger the intention to recommend to others.

With reference to the theoretical framework as previously shown, these are the hypotheses for the study, which are stated in the directional hypothesis format.

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
$26
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Urgency
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more
error: Content is protected !!
Open chat
1
You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp! Via + 1 929 473-0077

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.

Order your essay today and save 30% with the discount code GURUH