Bio 144 Case Study

Escape from Planet Soma1.How will the non-functional sodium channels affect the signaling capabilities of a neuron? Non-Functioning Na channels affect signals by not providing sodium to enter the cell for depolarization.2.What type of information do nociceptive neurons carry? They receive painful stimuli because it is a sensory nerve cell.3.Why would having this mutant gene be so terrible? It would be bad because you wouldn’t know when something is harmful or dangerous4.What effect will the destruction of myelin have on the signaling capability of a neuron? The signals wouldn’t travel as fast and your reflexes would slow down.5.Explain why this occurs. This would occur because the myelin sheath insulates the signal and quickens the speed.6.What will happen to you if you are forced to drink the alien “orange juice”? If forced to drink the alien orange juice it would slow your reflexes and you would feel as if you had multiple sclerosis.7.How will the signaling of a neuron be affected if the voltage-gated sodium channels open at a more negative membrane potential? Because a voltage-gated sodium channel opens at a specific threshold, if it opens at a more negative membrane potential, the threshold would then be lowered which in then would mean it would be easier to open the channels creating an increased sensitivity to the neuro.1.Name of your space alter ego.Aicirtap2.How will the non-functional sodium channels affect the signaling capabilities of a neuron? No action potential can be created.3.What type of information do nociceptive neurons carry? They carry pain signals.4.Why would having this mutant gene be so terrible? The mutant gene would be able to torment the carrier. The gene could generate unimaginable pain or remove the sense of feeling complete..5.What effect will the destruction of myelin have on the signaling capability of a neuron? Destruction of myelin will affect the nerve and there will be less conduction of electrical impulses from the brain to other parts of the body and the nerve signal sent to the brain is delayed.6.Explain why this occurs. These damaged nerve areas form sclerosis which disrupts the signaling capacity of the nerve. This may occur due to genetic defects, infectious agents, autoimmune reactions and traumaOpening more of Sodium and Potassium Pumps can cause for the neuron to become more excitable because it is reaching resting membrane potential quicker.14.What will happen to you when sevoflurane reaches the reticular formation neurons that control sleep and consciousness? Sevoflurane causes for a quick recovery from hyperpolarization to resting membrane potential, which means the action potential is met quicker causing you to fall asleep faster.15.How will increasing extracellular potassium affect the signaling capability of a neuron? The potassium outflow hyperpolarizes the neuron by a normal process, in which the movement of positively charged K+ ions to the outside of the cell moves the interior-anchored voltage potential in the negative direction. The gradient wouldn’t flow as fast with potassium and it would cause slower signals to move between cells.16.What type of cell normally regulates levels of extracellular potassium in the CNS? Astrocytes regulate levels of extracellular potassium in the central nervous system, which maintain homeostasis of excitatory substances such as potassiumHow will increasing extracellular potassium affect the signaling capability of a neuron?-The gradient wouldn’t flow as fast with potassium and it would cause slower signals to move between cells.What type of cell normally regulates levels of extracellular potassium in the CNS?-Astrocytes What “terror” will this method produce if injected into your brain tissue?-If potassium stays within the cell and travel out of the cell at a slower rate, you would experience a hyperexcitability which will lead to seizures.How will the excitability of a neuron be affected by sodium channels that open at more positive membranes?-Less excitability because the threshold is raised.How does this lead to seizures in the brain? -Seizures can happen when voltage gated channels require a more positive membrane potential to open, because there would be an increase in the degree of depolarization required in order to meet the threshold, and generate an action potential in the neuron. Furthermore, the axon hillock would have a harder time reaching threshold, and the neuron as a whole would operate less. Due to the fact that the neuron as a whole has a hard time firing this can cause seizures in the brain, because there is a loss in balance/homeostasis in the brain.●How will the non-functional sodium channels affect the signaling capabilities of a neuron?○The non-functional sodium channels affect the signaling capabilities of a neuron by allowing the ions to diffuse through the membrane. This then would take away the concentration gradient, making the neuron no longer able to send a signal.●What type of information do nociceptive neurons carry?○Nociceptors carry information on pain.●Why would having this mutant gene be so terrible?○No pain could lead to unobserved injuries, which could be fatal. For example, if you were to place your hand on a hot stove, you could feel the pressure and heat, but not the pain, and could severely burn yourself. While you would be able to see that you burned yourself later, if you were to sustain an internal injury there would be no way of knowing.●What effect will the destruction of myelin have on the signaling capability of a neuron? ○You wouldn’t have a myelin sheath, so you can’t participate in saltatory conduction. This would drastically slow down signaling.

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