CALectureWeek10.pptx

CARC103 – Computer Architecture

1

Week 10

Virtualization and Cloud Computing Fundamentals
Most slides adapted from Tomsho, G. (2017). Guide to Operating Systems, 5th ed. Cengage Learning

Objectives
After completing this module topic, you will be able to:
Describe the components of virtualization
Use and describe hosted virtualization
Use and describe bare-metal virtualization
Describe cloud computing

3

Objectives

After completing this chapter, you will be able to:
Describe computer storage
Configure local disks
Work with different types of volumes and virtual disks
Describe cloud storage
Describe tape drive technologies
Work with storage management tools
3

What we will learn to day
VIRTUALISATION
TECHNOLOGY
Hosted Virtualisaton
Bare-Metal Virtualisaton
Cloud Computing
SAS
PAS
IAS
4

Virtualization Fundamentals
Virtualization – a process that creates a software environment to emulate a computer’s hardware and BIOS
Allows multiple OSs to run on the same physical computer at the same time
Virtualization terms:
Virtual machine (VM) – is the virtual environment that emulates a physical computer’s hardware and BIOS
Guest OS – the operating system installed on a VM
Host computer – the physical computer on which the VM software is installed

5

Virtualization Fundamentals

Virtualization – a process that creates a software environment to emulate a computer’s hardware and BIOS
Allows multiple OSs to run on the same physical computer at the same time
Virtualization terms:
Virtual machine (VM) – is the virtual environment that emulates a physical computer’s hardware and BIOS
Guest OS – the operating system installed on a VM
Host computer – the physical computer on which the VM software is installed

5

Virtualization Fundamentals
LinuxMint running as a virtual machine in Windows 10 host machine.

Note: This is an example of a Type 2 hypervisor

6

Virtualization Fundamentals
6

Virtualization Fundamentals
Virtualization terms (cont’d):
Virtualization software creates and manages VMs and creates the virtual environment in which a guest OS is installed. Examples include:
Oracle VirtualBox
VMWare Workstation
Microsoft Hyper-V

Hypervisor – part of virtualization software that creates and monitors the virtual hardware environment, which allows multiple VMs to share physical hardware resources. It acts pretty much like an OS kernel, but instead of scheduling processes for access to the CPU and other devices, it schedules VMs. It’s sometimes called the virtual machine monitor (VMM).

Type 1 hypervisor runs directly on the host computer’s hardware and controls and monitors guest OSs (also called bare-metal virtualization). It is software that resides between the hardware and the operation system
Type 2 hypervisor is installed in a general-purpose host OS and the host OS access host hardware on behalf of the guest OS (also called hosted virtualization)

It’s used mainly for server virtualisation in data centre
It’s used mainly for desktop virtualisation solutions
7

Virtualization Fundamentals

Virtualization terms (cont’d):
Virtualization software creates and manages VMs and creates the virtual environment in which a guest OS is installed
Hypervisor creates and monitors the virtual hardware environment, which allows multiple VMs to share physical hardware resources
Type 1 hypervisor runs directly on the host computer’s hardware and controls and monitors guest OSs (also called bare-metal virtualization)
Type 2 hypervisor is installed in a general-purpose host OS and the host OS access host hardware on behalf of the guest OS (also called hosted virtualization)

7

Virtualization Fundamentals
Virtualization terms (cont’d):
A virtual disk consists of files residing on the host computer that represent a virtual machine’s hard drive
A virtual network is a network configuration created by virtualization
A snapshot is a partial copy of a VM made at a particular moment

Figure 11-14 How virtualization works
Figure 8-2 How virtualization works
8

Virtualization Fundamentals

Virtualization terms (cont’d):
A virtual disk consists of files residing on the host computer that represent a virtual machine’s hard drive
A virtual network is a network configuration created by virtualization
A snapshot is a partial copy of a VM made at a particular moment

8

Hosted Virtualization
Uses a type 2 hypervisor, runs on a desktop or server OS
Has an advantage of supporting a wider variety of guest Oss than bare-metal virtualizaion because there are few incompatibility problems between the guest OS and hardware
Easy and straightforward to use
Just install the software on your computer and begin creating virtual machines
Only enough memory to support the host and guest OSs, adequate CPU power, and enough space to store the virtual disk.
Performance might not be stellar, but the VMs should work well enough for experimenting or training, which are among the main reasons for using hosted virtualization.

Can you elaborate more on this?

9

Hosted Virtualization

Uses a type 2 hypervisor
Has an advantage of supporting a wider variety of guest OSs because there are few incompatibility problems between the guest OS and hardware
Easy and straightforward to use
Just install the software on your computer and begin creating virtual machines
Only hardware requirement is enough memory to support the host and guest OSs, adequate CPU power, and enough space to store the virtual disk

9

Hosted Virtualization Applications
Host virtualization is flexible and easy to use, so its applications continue to grow as people find different uses for it. Some common applications include:
OS Training
Software Training
Application isolation
Network isolation
Software development
What-if-scenarios
Use of legacy applications
Physical-to-virtual conversion

10

Hosted Virtualization Applications

OS Training
Software Training
Application isolation
Network isolation
Software development
What-if-scenarios
Use of legacy applications
Physical-to-virtual conversion

10

Hosted Virtualization Products
Well known hosted virtualization products:
VMware (https://www.vmware.com/au.html)
Workstation Pro
Workstation Player
Vmware Open Source (https://www.vmware.com/au/download/open_source.html)
Oracle VirtualBox (https://www.virtualbox.org/wiki/Screenshots)
Parallels Desktop (https://www.parallels.com/au/)
Mac only

11

Hosted Virtualization Products

Well known hosted virtualization products:
VMware Workstation Pro
VMware Workstation Player
Microsoft Virtual PC
VirtualBox

11

Using VMware Workstation
Download a free trial version and try it for 30 days
After installed, a wizard takes you through the steps of creating a virtual machine
Offers flexible networking options
Allowing you to configure the NIC on your VM to use one of the five virtual network options or create your own custom virtual network
Five preconfigured options:
Bridged – connecting the VM’s virtual n/w to the physical n/w
NAT – host computer’s IP is shared with the VM by using Network Address Translator- More secure
Host-only – isolating the VM from the host n/w and only allows n/w communication between VMs running on the host and the host computer.—–Most secure
Custom – connecting the VM to a virtual n/w created with the virtual n/w editor, assigning a subnet to the network, having the option of using DHCP to assign IP address to connected VMs.
LAN segment – isolating LAN segment from the host machine and the host network. Useful when the VM must be completely isolated.

12

Using VMware Workstation

Download a free trial version and try it for 30 days
After installed, a wizard takes you through the steps of creating a virtual machine
Offers flexible networking options
Allowing you to configure the NIC on your VM to use one of the five virtual network options or create your own custom virtual network
Five preconfigured options:
Bridged, NAT, Host-only, Custom, LAN segment

12

Using VMware Workstation
Figure 8-3 VMware virtual network options

13

Using VMware Workstation
13

Using VMware Workstation
VMware Tools should be installed in the guest OS to ensure the best performance and ease of use
A collection of tools and drivers
Other advanced features are available for developers
Reason VMware Workstation is considered the flagship hosted virtualization product
If no need for all the bells and whistles, try VMware Workstation Player
14

Using VMware Workstation

VMware Tools should be installed in the guest OS to ensure the best performance and ease of use
A collection of tools and drivers
Other advanced features are available for developers
Reason VMware Workstation is considered the flagship hosted virtualization product

14

Using VMware Workstation Player
Stripped-down version of VMware that offers the basics of desktop virtualization
Includes an option to download a virtual appliance, which is a ready-to-use VM that contains a guest OS with preconfigured applications or network services
A good option for new virtualization users and for classroom and training centers

15

Using VMware Workstation Player

Stripped-down version of VMware that offers the basics of desktop virtualization
Includes an option to download a virtual appliance, which is a ready-to-use VM that contains a guest OS with preconfigured applications or network services
A good option for new virtualization users and for classroom and training centers

15

Using VMware Workstation Player
Figure 8-4 The VMware Workstation Player Welcome window

16

Using VMware Workstation Player
16

Using VirtualBox
Can be installed on Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, and Solaris hosts and supports a wide range of Windows, Linux, and other guest OSs
Created using a wizard that walks you through the process of selecting the guest OS and the VM’s hard disk and RAM configuration
The user interface consists of a console where you can create VMs and view the status of all VMs

17

Using VirtualBox

Can be installed on Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, and Solaris hosts and supports a wide range of Windows, Linux, and other guest OSs
Created using a wizard that walks you through the process of selecting the guest OS and the VM’s hard disk and RAM configuration
The user interface consists of a console where you can create VMs and view the status of all VMs

17

Using VirtualBox
Figure 8-5 Oracle VM VirtualBox Manager

18

Using VirtualBox
18

Bare-Metal Virtualization
Uses a Type 1 hypervisor
Software that resides between the hardware and the operating system
Targeted mainly for production virtualization in data centers
Installed directly on hardware and have more stringent host machine requirements
Offer more features for managing VMs than hosted virtualization
A little more complicated to install and use as well

List of Supported Guest Windows VM’s On Server 2016, 2012 R2, 2012 and 2008 R2
(https://www.urtech.ca/2018/05/solved-complete-list-of-supported-guest-windows-vms-on-server-2016-2012-r2-2012-and-2008-r2/ )

19

Bare-Metal Virtualization

Uses a Type 1 hypervisor
Targeted mainly for production virtualization in data centers
Installed directly on hardware and have more stringent host machine requirements
Offer more features for managing VMs than hosted virtualization
A little more complicated to install and use as well

19

Bare-Metal Virtualization Applications
Consolidate servers
Retire old or unreliable hardware: converting physical machines to VMs and running them on the latest hardware
Make optimal use of multicore, high-performance servers
Maintain application separation: avoiding OS resource conflicts and gain stability and reliability
Reclaim rack or floor space
Reduce cooling and power requirements
Test installation and upgrades
Test a preconfigured application

20

Bare-Metal Virtualization Applications

Consolidate servers
Retire old or unreliable hardware: converting physical machines to VMs
Make optimal use of multicore, high-performance servers
Maintain application separation
Reclaim rack or floor space
Reduce cooling and power requirements
Test installation and upgrades
Test a preconfigured application

20

Bare-Metal Virtualization Applications
Test what-if scenarios: creating a virtual n/w and run clones of production VMS to test idea for improving n/w’s performance, functionality, and reliability
Live migration: VMs can be migrated to new h/w while running for performance or reliability improvements with no downtime
Dynamic provisioning: deploying VMs and storages dynamically to meet application requirements, this feature has uses in clustered computing and cloud computing.

21

Bare-Metal Virtualization Applications

Test what-if scenarios
Live migration
Dynamic provisioning

21

Bare-Metal Virtualization Products
Microsoft Hyper-V – introduced with Windows Server 2008 and can be installed as a server role
Acts as a management OS for VMs installed with Hyper-V
Supports advanced features, such as host server clustering and live migration
Requires a 64-bit CPU with virtualization extensions enabled on the host system
Microsoft provides virtual instances of the OS with no additional licensing fees
Can be enabled in Windows 8 and later versions
This website provides information on how to set up a VM using Hyper-V on
Windows 10 (https://www.groovypost.com/howto/create-virtual-machine-windows-10-hyper-v/)

22

Bare-Metal Virtualization Products

Microsoft Hyper-V – introduced with Windows Server 2008 and can be installed as a server role
Acts as a management OS for VMs installed with Hyper-V
Supports advanced features, such as host server clustering and live migration
Requires a 64-bit CPU with virtualization extensions enabled on the host system
Microsoft provides virtual instances of the OS with no additional licensing fees
Can be enabled in Windows 8 and later versions

22

Bare-Metal Virtualization Products

Figure 8-6 B: The Hyper-V Manager console

Figure 8-6 A: Enabling/Disabling Hyper-V on Windows 10
23

Bare-Metal Virtualization Products
23

Example of VMware type 1’s hypervisor screen after server boots up

https://phoenixnap.com/kb/what-is-hypervisor-type-1-2
Type 1 hypervisors are relatively simple
Not offer many functionalities.
Once you boot up a physical server with a bare-metal hypervisor installed, it displays a command prompt-like screen. If you connect a monitor to the server, what you get to see are some of the hardware and network details. This consists of the CPU type, the amount of memory, the IP address and the MAC address.

24

Bare-Metal Virtualization Products
Citrix XenServer – Uses Linux as a management OS on the host
A XenServer host computer requires a 64-bit CPU with virtualization extensions to run Windows guest OSs
VMware vSphere – includes VMware ESX Server, which is installed directly on the physical server without a management OS
Most configuration tasks are performed from a remote client OS using vSphere Client

25

Bare-Metal Virtualization Products

Citrix XenServer – Uses Linux as a management OS on the host
A XenServer host computer requires a 64-bit CPU with virtualization extensions to run Windows guest OSs
VMware vSphere – includes VMware ESX Server, which is installed directly on the physical server without a management OS
Most configuration tasks are performed from a remote client OS using vSphere Client

25

Cloud Computing
Cloud computing is a networking model in which data, applications, and processing power are managed by servers on the Internet
Users of resources pay for what they use rather than for the equipment and software needed to provide the resources
Benefits:
Reduced physical plant costs
Reduced upfront costs
Reduced personnel costs

26

Cloud Computing

Cloud computing is a networking model in which data, applications, and processing power are managed by servers on the Internet
Users of resources pay for what they use rather than for the equipment and software needed to provide the resources
Benefits:
Reduced physical plant costs
Reduced upfront costs
Reduced personnel costs

26

Photo from Communications of the ACM, Vol 62, No 12
27

Cloud Computing
Three main categories of cloud computing:
Software as a service (SaaS)
Platform as a service (PaaS)
Infrastructure as a service (IaaS)
The phrase “as a service” means the resource resides on another server or network than the one using the resource

28

Cloud Computing

Three main categories of cloud computing:
Software as a service
Platform as a service
Infrastructure as a service
The phrase “as a service” means the resource resides on another server or network than the one using the resource

28

Origin of the term “Cloud Computing”
“Comes from the early days of the Internet where we drew the network as a cloud… we didn’t care where the messages went… the cloud hid it from us” – Kevin Marks, Google

First cloud around networking (TCP/IP abstraction)

Second cloud around documents (WWW data abstraction)

The emerging cloud abstracts infrastructure complexities of servers, applications, data, and heterogeneous platforms – (“muck” as Amazon’s CEO Jeff Bezos calls it).

Resources: Effectively and Securely Using the Cloud Computing Paradigm Peter Mell, Tim Grance NIST, Information Technology Laboratory 10-29-2009
NIST Cloud Research Team Peter Mell Project Lead Tim Grance Program Manager Lee Badger Jeff Voas Ramaswamy Chandramouli 2
Information is available from: http://www.nist.gov/public_affairs/contact.htm

29

A Working Definition of Cloud Computing
Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources
(e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction.

This cloud model promotes availability and is composed of five essential characteristics, three service models, and four deployment models.

Resources: Effectively and Securely Using the Cloud Computing Paradigm Peter Mell, Tim Grance NIST, Information Technology Laboratory 10-29-2009
NIST Cloud Research Team Peter Mell Project Lead Tim Grance Program Manager Lee Badger Jeff Voas Ramaswamy Chandramouli 2
Information is available from: http://www.nist.gov/public_affairs/contact.htm

30

5 Essential Cloud Characteristics
On-demand self-service

Broad network access

Resource pooling
Location independence

Rapid elasticity

Measured service

Cloud Software as a Service (SaaS)
– Use provider’s applications over a network

Cloud Platform as a Service (PaaS)
– Deploy customer-created applications to a cloud

Cloud Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
– Rent processing, storage, network capacity, and other fundamental computing resources

To be considered “cloud” they must be deployed on top of cloud infrastructure that has the key characteristics
Resources: Effectively and Securely Using the Cloud Computing Paradigm Peter Mell, Tim Grance NIST, Information Technology Laboratory 10-29-2009
NIST Cloud Research Team Peter Mell Project Lead Tim Grance Program Manager Lee Badger Jeff Voas Ramaswamy Chandramouli 2
Information is available from: http://www.nist.gov/public_affairs/contact.htm

3 Cloud Service Models

Cloud Stack

Resources : Kavis,M.(2014)Architecting the cloud,John Wiley,Hoboken,NJ

32

Software as a Service
SaaS – also called “hosted applications” or “on-demand applications”
Most well-known example is Google Apps and Microsoft Office 365
Usually offered as a subscription based on the number of users
Customers can take advantage of new software editions much faster
Available anywhere the customer has a connection to the Internet

33

Software as a Service

SaaS – also called “hosted applications” or “on-demand applications”
Most well-known example is Google Apps and Microsoft Office 365
Usually offered as a subscription based on the number of users
Customers can take advantage of new software editions much faster
Available anywhere the customer has a connection to the Internet

33

Platform as a Service
PaaS – also called “hosted platform” and is similar to SaaS, but customer develops applications with the service provider’s tool and infrastructure
Customer develops and owns the application and then delivers it to a third party
The most common PaaS products are:
Salesforce.com’s Apex
Azure for Windows
Google’s AppEngine for Python and Java
WaveMaker for Ajax
Engine Yard for Ruby on Rails

34

Platform as a Service

PaaS – also called “hosted platform” and is similar to SaaS, but customer develops applications with the service provider’s tool and infrastructure
Customer develops and owns the application and then delivers it to a third party
The most common PaaS products are:
Salesforce.com’s Apex
Azure for Windows
Google’s AppEngine for Python and Java
WaveMaker for Ajax
Engine Yard for Ruby on Rails

34

Infrastructure as a Service
IaaS – also called “hosted infrastructure”, it allows a company to use storage or entire virtual servers
If a customer needs another 100 GB of storage space they can pay for the space without worrying about how that space is actually provided
If a customer needs another server they pay for the amount of processing and storage the additional server actually requires
Customers rent the resources they are using

35

Infrastructure as a Service

IaaS – also called “hosted infrastructure”, it allows a company to use storage or entire virtual servers
If a customer needs another 100 GB of storage space they can pay for the space without worrying about how that space is actually provided
If a customer needs another server they pay for the amount of processing and storage the additional server actually requires
Customers rent the resources they are using

35

Summary
Virtualization is a process that creates a software environment to emulate a computer’s hardware and BIOS, allowing multiple OSs to run on the same physical computer at the same time
Virtualization can be divided into two categories: hosted and bare-metal virtualization
Hosted virtualization products are installed on a desktop OS and include VMware Workstation and VirtualBox
36

Summary

Virtualization is a process that creates a software environment to emulate a computer’s hardware and BIOS, allowing multiple OSs to run on the same physical computer at the same time
Virtualization can be divided into two categories: hosted and bare-metal virtualization
Hosted virtualization products are installed on a desktop OS and include VMware Workstation, Virtual PC, and VirtualBox
36

Summary
Bare-metal virtualization products are targeted mainly for production virtualization in data centers
Cloud computing is a networking model in which data, applications, and processing power are managed by servers on the Internet
37

Summary

Bare-metal virtualization products are targeted mainly for production virtualization in data centers
Cloud computing is a networking model in which data, applications, and processing power are managed by servers on the Internet
37

Class Work
Make a group of 3

Answer the following questions
Virtual Machine – Guest OS, Host Computer
Hypervisor
Hosted Virtualization (Application & Products)
Bare-Metal Virtualization (Application & Products)
Private vs Public Cloud
Categories of Cloud Computing
SaaS, PaaS, IaaS

38

38

kent.edu.au

Kent Institute Australia Pty. Ltd.
ABN 49 003 577 302 ● CRICOS Code: 00161E ● RTO Code: 90458 ● TEQSA Provider Number: PRV12051

39

39

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
$26
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Urgency
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more
error: Content is protected !!
Open chat
1
You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp! Via + 1 929 473-0077

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.

Order your essay today and save 30% with the discount code GURUH