CALectureWeek11.ppt

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CARC103 – Computer Architecture
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Prescribed Text
Bird, S. D. (2017), Systems Architecture, 7th ed, Cengage Learning
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Systems Architecture,

Seventh Edition
Chapter 14
System Administration
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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

Chapter Objectives
In this chapter, you will learn to:
Describe system administration responsibilities and tasks
Explain the process of acquiring computer hardware and system software
Describe tools and processes for evaluating application resource requirements and computer system performance

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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

Chapter Objectives (continued)
Summarize measures for ensuring system security
Describe physical environment factors affecting computer hardware

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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

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FIGURE 14.1 Topics covered in this chapter
Courtesy of Course Technology/Cengage Learning

Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

System Administration
Primary responsibility
Ensure efficient and reliable delivery of IS services
Broad categories of tasks
Acquiring new IS resources
Maintaining existing IS resources
Designing and implementing an IS security policy
Varies among organizations

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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

Strategic Planning
Setting long-range goals and developing a plan to attain those goals
IS strategic plan tends to follow rather than lead strategic plans of other organizational units

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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

Strategic Planning
Goals
Identify services to be provided
Resources needed to provide those services
Plan
Strategies for developing services and markets for them
Strategies for acquiring sufficient resources for operations and growth
Organizational structure and control

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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

Hardware and Software as Infrastructure
Hardware and software are usually capital expenditures – provide benefit over multiple years
Infrastructure characteristics include:
Services provided to many users
Large costs, difficult to allocate to specific users
Recurring expenditures for infrastructure improvement and maintenance

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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

Standards
Required when providing infrastructure-based services to a wide variety of users
Potential issues
Tends to stifle innovation
May fail to meet needs of some users
Incompatibility
Problems for users who need services at or near the leading edge of technology

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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

Competitive Advantage
Technology provides competitive advantage if it does one or more of the following:
Provides services that competitors are unable to provide
Provides services of unusually high quality
Provides services at unusually low price
Generates services at unusually low cost
Competitive advantage is difficult to achieve due to:
Rapid technology changes
High cost for developers and early adopters

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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

The Acquisition Process
Determine applications that will be supported
Specify hardware and software capability and capacity requirements
Draft and circulate a request for proposals (RFP)
Evaluate RFP responses
Negotiate purchase, installation, and/or maintenance contract

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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

Determining and Stating Requirements
Factors to consider
Integration with existing hardware/software
Availability of maintenance services
Availability of training
Physical parameters (size, cooling requirements, disk space needed for system software)
Availability of upgrades

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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

Request for Proposals (RFP)
Formal document sent to vendors; states requirements and solicits proposals to meet them
General outline
Identification of requestor
Format, content, timing requirements for responses
Requirements (categorized by type and listed completely; essential versus optional)
Evaluation criteria

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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

Evaluating Proposals
Determine acceptability of each proposal
Rank acceptable proposals
Validate high-ranking proposals
Benchmarking

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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

Determining Requirements and Evaluating Performance
Hardware requirements depend on hardware and system software resources required
If application software is developed, hardware and system software resource consumption can be measured
If application software is not developed, determining resource requirements is complex; use benchmark testing

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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

Determining Requirements and Evaluating Performance
Mathematical models for estimating computer requirements
Application demand model
Resource availability model

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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

Benchmarks
Measure of computer system performance while executing specific processing tasks
Evaluators must:
Select the benchmark tests most relevant to the intended applications
Determine the relationship between benchmark tests and the actual work the new computer will perform

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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

Measuring Resource Demand and Utilization
Automated tools generate information that describes behavior of specific devices, resources, or subsystems
Hardware monitors
Software monitors
Program profilers

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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

Measuring Resource Demand and Utilization (continued)
Hardware and software monitors
Detect and report processing or I/O activity
Operate continuously or intermittently
Help identify performance bottlenecks
Program profilers
Describe resource or service utilization of an application program during execution

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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

Windows Performance Monitoring
Performance Monitor utility
Monitors hardware and software resource use in real time
Captures performance and utilization data for defined objects
Each object has a set of counters
Has many display options

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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

FIGURE 14.2 Objects and counters in Performance Monitor
Courtesy of Course Technology/Cengage Learning
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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

FIGURE 14.3 A real-time display of performance data
Courtesy of Course Technology/Cengage Learning
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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

Security
Security: describes all measures for protecting the value of these investments, including
Physical protection against equipment loss or damage
Economic protection against loss of information’s value through unauthorized disclosure
Well-integrated approach protects hardware, software, and data resources against accidental loss or damage, malicious tampering, unauthorized access, and accidental disclosure

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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

Physical Security
Restrict access to prevent theft, tampering, and unauthorized access
Lock doors
Limit distribution of keys, key cards, etc.
Reinforce doors and walls
Lock equipment to desks

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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

Access Controls
Based on two key processes
Authentication (verifies identity)
Password-based most common
Biometric (for example, fingerprint or retinal scan)
Authorization (verifies rights)
Based on security IDs or tickets
Access control list

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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

FIGURE 14.4 Authorization in a file open service call
Courtesy of Course Technology/Cengage Learning
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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

Password Controls and Security
Ways to enhance password-based authentication
Restrictions on length and composition of valid passwords
Requirements that passwords periodically be changed
Analysis of password content to identify passwords that are easily guessed
Encryption of passwords in files and during transmission over a network

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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

FIGURE 14.5 Windows password policies
Courtesy of Course Technology/Cengage Learning
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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

FIGURE 14.6 Windows account lockout policies
Courtesy of Course Technology/Cengage Learning
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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

Auditing
Definitions of auditing:
Accounting: Process of examining records to determine if generally accepted accounting principles were applied correctly in preparing financial reports
Hardware and software: Creating and managing records of user activity or resource access
Useful tool for examining security policy and analyzing security breaches that have already occurred

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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

Limitations of Auditing
Size of log files
Reduction in system performance
Backward-looking
Poor tool for prevention
Automated search tools required to extract useful information

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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

Virus Protection
Programs or program fragments that:
Infect computer by permanently installing themselves in a hard-to-find location
Perform malicious acts on infected computer
Replicate and spread using services of infected computer
Types: boot virus, macro virus, worm

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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

Virus Protection
Common features of antivirus software
Scans e-mail messages and attachments for known viruses; disables or deletes them
Monitors access to important system files and data structures and logs or denies access
Scans removable media and cloud-based storage for known viruses
Periodically scans file system and important data structures for viruses
Monitoring Web page accesses and disabling malicious software

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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

Software Updates
Fix bugs, errors, and security holes as they are discovered
Used to be a manual process; now typically automated

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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

FIGURE 14.7 Configuring automatic updates in Windows
Courtesy of Course Technology/Cengage Learning
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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

FIGURE 14.8 Viewing a software installation policy
Courtesy of Course Technology/Cengage Learning
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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

Firewalls
Hardware devices, software, or a combination that prevents unauthorized users in one network from accessing resources on another network
Packet-filtering firewall
Application firewall (proxy server)

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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

FIGURE 14.9 A firewall between the Internet and a private network
Courtesy of Course Technology/Cengage Learning
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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

Types of Firewalls
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Packet-filtering firewall
Simplest type
Examines each packet; matches header content to a list of allowed or denied packet types

Application firewall Handles service requests of external users of applications
Shields internal servers and resources from direct access by outside users

Stateful firewalls Tracks progress of complex client-server interactions

Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

FIGURE 14.10 An application firewall
Courtesy of Course Technology/Cengage Learning
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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

Physical Environment
Considerations when choosing or preparing a location for computer hardware
Electrical power
Heat dissipation
Moisture
Cable routing
Fire protection

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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

Electrical Power
Fluctuations can cause momentary loss of operation or damage to electrical circuits
Types of fluctuations
Momentary power surges (surge protector)
Momentary power sags
Long-term voltage sags
Total loss of power (auxiliary power source, such as USP)

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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

Heat Dissipation
Excessive heat can cause intermittent or total failure of electrical circuits
Means of heat dissipation
Vents or fans on the computer itself
Cooling the room
Auxiliary cooling of cabinet

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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

Moisture
Excessive moisture: danger of short circuits
Low humidity: Buildup of static electricity
Protective measures
Well-designed cabinets protect against spills and leaks
Mount hardware above floor level
Control humidity with optional components of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems

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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

Cable Routing
Provide protection and ease of access with:
Raised floors
Dedicated cable conduits

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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

Fire Protection
Protection
Carbon dioxide
Fire retardant foams and powders
Gaseous compounds
Supplemental detection equipment within computer room

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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

Disaster Planning and Recovery
Periodic data backup and storage of backups at alternate sites
Backup and storage of critical software at alternate sites
Installing duplicate or supplementary equipment at alternate sites
Arrangements for leasing existing equipment at alternate sites

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Systems Architecture, Seventh Edition

Summary
System administration
The acquisition process
Determining requirements
Evaluating performance
Security
Physical environment

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Kent Institute Australia Pty. Ltd.

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