ebook-philosophy-here-and-now-powerful-ideas-in-everyday-life-3rd-edition-by-lewis-vaughn.pdf

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PHILOSOPHY
HERE AND NOW

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WHAT PEOPLE ARE SAYING ABOUT
PHILOSOPHY HERE AND NOW:

“Above all, Vaughn’s text does what few others are able to do, namely, to show that philosophy actually
matters with respect to how we think and live in the world. For all its brevity the book manages to run
the gamut of critical topics, and to offer real-world (and often humorous) examples of each. He does not
offer the luxury of viewing difficult questions from a position of abstracted detachment and safety. Rather,
he hurls readers straight into the teeth of the storm and allows them to feel the raw terror, wonder, and
exhilaration that rightly belong to the study of philosophy.”

—Daniel Bramer, Holy Family University

“Vaughn has chosen the most important topics in philosophy. His menu cannot be improved upon. With
a beautiful opening chapter on the nature of philosophical thinking and remarkably concise chapters on
the most engaging issues in philosophy, and with a nice mix of classic and contemporary philosophers, this
is a terrific text. It is visually appealing as well.”

—Paul Herrick, Shoreline Community College

“Philosophy Here and Now is written in a clear, engaging, and lively style. The author does an excellent
job of explaining abstract and conceptually intricate material to novices. The book introduces students to
philosophy as a living enterprise, full of intellectual surprises and relevance to everyday human concerns.”

—Philip Robbins, University of Missouri

“I can’t imagine not using Philosophy Here and Now. My experience with the textbook has been completely
positive. When students let you know how much they like reading the text you know you made the right
decision in adopting the book.”

—Teresa Cantrell, University of Louisville

“This is the best text I have found for my introductory class. Questions and exercises engage the students’
lives directly and ask them to explain their own understanding/beliefs about a matter. The appendix on
writing philosophy papers can easily stand on its own as the most valuable tool I use in my class. I have yet
to find anything at this price with a comparable content.”

—Stephen Orr, Solano Community College

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PHILOSOPHY
HERE AND NOW

POWERFUL IDEAS IN
EVERYDAY LIFE

THIRD EDITION

Lewis Vaughn

NEW YORK OXFORD
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS

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Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford.
It furthers the University’s objective of excellence in research, scholarship,
and education by publishing worldwide. Oxford is a registered trade mark of
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Published in the United States of America by Oxford University Press
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© 2019, 2016, 2013 by Oxford University Press

For titles covered by Section 112 of the US Higher Education
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You must not circulate this work in any other form
and you must impose this same condition on any acquirer.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Vaughn, Lewis, author.
Title: Philosophy here and now : powerful ideas in everyday life / Lewis Vaughn.
Description: THIRD EDITION. | New York : Oxford University Press, 2018.
Identifiers: LCCN 2018014409 | ISBN 9780190852344 (pbk.)
Subjects: LCSH: Philosophy—Textbooks.
Classification: LCC BD31 .V38 2018 | DDC 100—dc23
LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2018014409

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Printed by LSC Communications, Inc.
Printed in the United States of America

http://www.oup.com/us/he

https://lccn.loc.gov/2018014409

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vii

BRIEF CONTENTS

PREFACE xxi

CHAPTER 1 PHILOSOPHY AND YOU 1

CHAPTER 2 GOD AND RELIGION 57

CHAPTER 3 MORALITY AND THE MORAL LIFE 135

CHAPTER 4 MIND AND BODY 205

CHAPTER 5 FREE WILL AND DETERMINISM 240

CHAPTER 6 KNOWLEDGE AND SKEPTICISM 274

CHAPTER 7 AESTHETICS 332

CHAPTER 8 THE JUST SOCIETY 354

CHAPTER 9 THE MEANING OF LIFE 406

APPENDIX A THE TRUTH ABOUT PHILOSOPHY MAJORS 431

APPENDIX B ANSWERS TO EXERCISES 437

APPENDIX C HOW TO WRITE A PHILOSOPHY PAPER 441

NOTES 451

GLOSSARY 457

CREDITS 461

INDEX of MARGINAL
QUOTATIONS 463

GENERAL INDEX 465

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ix

CONTENTS

Preface xxi

CHAPTER 1 PHILOSOPHY AND YOU 1

1.1 PHILOSOPHY: THE QUEST FOR UNDERSTANDING 2

The Good of Philosophy 2

Philosophical Terrain 4
What Do You Believe? Your Philosophical Beliefs 5
Essay/Discussion Questions 7

1.2 SOCRATES AND THE EXAMINED LIFE 8

Philosophers at Work: Plato 9

PLATO: The Republic 10
Philosophers at Work: The Pre-Socratics 12
Essay/Discussion Questions 14

1.3 THINKING PHILOSOPHICALLY 14

Reasons and Arguments 15
Philosophy Lab 16
Philosophers at Work: Philosophy Takes

on Racism 20

Reading Philosophy 27
Philosophers at Work: Hypatia 29
Philosophers at Work: Early Women

Philosophers: Themistoclea, Arignote,
and Theano 31

Fallacious Reasoning 33
Philosophy Now: Philosophy in the News 34
Essay/Discussion Questions 40

REVIEW NOTES 40

Writing to Understand: Arguing Your Own Views 42

KEY TERMS 42

ARGUMENT EXERCISES 43

Contents xix Contents

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NARRATIVE: Plato, The Trial and Death of Socrates 47

PROBING QUESTIONS 55

FOR FURTHER READING 55

CHAPTER 2 GOD AND RELIGION 57

2.1 OVERVIEW: GOD AND PHILOSOPHY 58

Why Religion Matters 59

Overview: The Philosopher’s Quest 59
Philosophy Now: Who Believes in God? 60
What Do You Believe? Hard-Wired for God? 63

Belief and Disbelief 64
Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical

Views 66

2.2 ARGUMENTS FOR THE EXISTENCE OF GOD 66

Cosmological Arguments 66

AQUINAS: Summa Theologica 67
Philosophers at Work: St. Thomas Aquinas 68
Philosophy Now: Science and the Uncaused

Universe 69

CRAIG: Reasonable Faith 70

Design Arguments 72

PALEY: Natural Theology 72

HUME: Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion 74
Philosophy Now: Do Scientists Reject Religion? 78

Ontological Arguments 79

ANSELM: Proslogium 79
Philosophy Now: Evolution and Intelligent

Design 80

KANT: Critique of Pure Reason 83
Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical

Views 83

2.3 GOD AND THE PROBLEM OF EVIL 84

Rowe’s Argument from Evil 84

ROWE: Philosophy of Religion 84

The Free Will Defense 87

SWINBURNE: Is There a God? 87

Contents xix Contents

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The Soul-Making Defense 88

HICK: Evil and the God of Love 88
Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical

Views 91

2.4 THEISM AND RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCE 92

ST. TERESA OF AVILA: The Life of
Teresa of Jesus 92

MACKIE: The Miracle of Theism 93
Philosophy Lab 94

ROWE: Philosophy of Religion 95
Philosophy Now: Proof of the Power of Prayer? 96

SWINBURNE: The Existence of God 97
Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical

Views 98

2.5 BELIEF WITHOUT REASON 98

James: Pragmatic Faith 99

JAMES: “The Will to Believe” 100

MARTIN: Atheism: A Philosophical
Justification 106

Pascal: Betting on God 106
What Do You Believe? Do You Live by Faith? 107

PASCAL: Pensees and Other Writings 107
Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical

Views 109

2.6 EASTERN RELIGIONS 109

Buddhism 109

SUMEDHO: Buddha-Nature 112

RAHULA: What the Buddha Taught 112
Philosophy Now: Buddhism and Science 114

Hinduism 116
Philosophy Now: The Caste System 120

Daoism 123

CHUANG TZU: All Things Are One 123

LAO-TZU: Tao-te ching 124
Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical

Views 126

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REVIEW NOTES 126

Writing to Understand: Arguing Your Own
Views 129

KEY TERMS 129

FICTION: Arthur C. Clarke, “The Star” 131

PROBING QUESTIONS 133

FOR FURTHER READING 134

CHAPTER 3 MORALITY AND THE MORAL LIFE 135

3.1 OVERVIEW: ETHICS AND THE MORAL DOMAIN 136

Ethics and Morality 136

Moral Theories 139
Philosophy Now: Morality and the Low 141
Philosophy Now: The Morality of Human

Cloning 144

Religion and Morality 146

SHAFER-LANDAU: Whatever Happened
to Good and Evil? 147

Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical
Views 148

3.2 MORAL RELATIVISM 148

Subjective Relativism 149

Cultural Relativism 151
What Do You Believe? Cultural Relativism

and Women’s Rights 152
Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical

Views 155

3.3 MORALITY BASED ON CONSEQUENCES 155

Utilitarianism 156

MILL: “What Utilitarianism Is” 158
Philosophy Now: Utilitarianism and the Death

Penalty 160
Philosophy Lab 164

Ethical Egoism 165
Philosophers at Work: John Stuart Mill 165
Philosophy Now: Torture and the Ticking Bomb

Terrorist 166

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Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical
Views 169

3.4 MORALITY BASED ON DUTY AND RIGHTS 169

KANT: Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals 170
Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical

Views 175

3.5 MORALITY BASED ON CHARACTER 175

ARISTOTLE: Nicomachean Ethics 176

SHAFER-LANDAU: The Fundamentals of Ethics 180
Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical

Views 181

3.6 FEMINIST ETHICS AND THE ETHICS OF CARE 181

JAGGAR: “Feminist Ethics” 182

CROSTHWAITE: “Gender and Bioethics” 182

HELD: The Ethics of Care 184

Philosophers at Work: Mary Wollstonecraft 186

BAIER: “The Need for More Than Justice” 188
Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical

Views 188

3.7 ALBERT CAMUS: AN EXISTENTIALIST VOICE 188

CAMUS: The Myth of Sisyphus 190
Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical

Views 192

3.8 CONFUCIANISM 192

CONFUCIUS: Analects 193

NOSS: A History of the World’s Religions 195
Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical

Views 195

REVIEW NOTES 196

Writing to Understand: Arguing Your
Own Views 198

KEY TERMS 198

FICTION: Ursula K. Le Guin, “The Ones Who Walk Away

from Omelas” 200

PROBING QUESTIONS 203

FOR FURTHER READING 203

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CHAPTER 4 MIND AND BODY 205

4.1 OVERVIEW: THE MIND–BODY PROBLEM 206

Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical
Views 211

4.2 SUBSTANCE DUALISM 211

DESCARTES: Discourse on the Method of Rightly
Conducting the Reason 212

SCHICK: Doing Philosophy 212

DESCARTES: Meditations on First Philosophy 213
What Do You Believe? The Immortal Soul 214

SEARLE: Mind 216
Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical

Views 217

4.3 MIND–BODY IDENTITY 217

SMART: “Sensations and Brain Processes” 217

CHALMERS: The Conscious Mind 218

NAGEL: “What Is It Like to Be a Bat?” 220
Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical

Views 221

4.4 THE MIND AS SOFTWARE 222

FODOR: “The Mind–Body Problem” 222

BLOCK: “Troubles with Functionalism” 223

What Do You Believe? Al and Human Rights 224

SEARLE: Mind 226
Philosophers at Work: Alan Turing 227
Philosophers at Work: John R. Searle 228
Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical

Views 229
Philosophy Now: AI, Ethics, and War 230

4.5 THE MIND AS PROPERTIES 230

CHALMERS: The Conscious Mind 232
Philosophy Lab 233
Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical

Views 234

REVIEW NOTES 234

Writing to Understand: Arguing Your Own Views 235

Contents xvxiv Contents

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KEY TERMS 236

FICTION: Terry Bisson, “They’re Made out of Meat” 237

PROBING QUESTIONS 238

FOR FURTHER READING 238

CHAPTER 5 FREE WILL AND DETERMINISM 240

5.1 OVERVIEW: THE FREE WILL PROBLEM 241

What Do You Believe? Fate 245
Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical

Views 246

5.2 DETERMINISM AND INDETERMINISM 246

D’HOLBACH: “Of the System of Man’s Free
Agency” 246

Philosophers at Work: William James 248

JAMES: “The Dilemma of Determinism” 249
Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical

Views 250

5.3 COMPATIBILISM 250

LOCKE: An Essay Concerning Human
Understanding 251

STACE: Religion and the Modern Mind 251
Philosophy Now: Does Belief in Free Will Matter? 252

ROWE: “Two Concepts of Freedom” 254
Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical

Views 255

5.4 LIBERTARIANISM 255

Philosophy Now: Science and Free Will 256

VAN INWAGEN: An Essay on Free Will 257
Philosophy Lab 258

TAYLOR: Metaphysics 258
Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical

Views 261

5.5 SARTRE’S PROFOUND FREEDOM 261

SARTRE: “Existentialism Is a Humanism” 262
Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical

Views 266

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REVIEW NOTES 266

Writing to Understand: Arguing Your Own
Views 268

KEY TERMS 268

FICTION: Thomas D. Davis, “A Little Omniscience Goes

a Long Way” 270

PROBING QUESTIONS 273

FOR FURTHER READING 273

CHAPTER 6 KNOWLEDGE AND SKEPTICISM 274

6.1 OVERVIEW: THE PROBLEM OF KNOWLEDGE 275

What Do You Believe? Cognitive Relativism
Undone 277

Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical
Views 280

6.2 THE RATIONALIST ROAD 281

Plato’s Rationalism 281

PLATO: Meno 283

Descartes’ Doubt 284

DESCARTES: Meditations on First Philosophy 285
Philosophy Now: Living in The Matrix 287
Philosophy Lab 288

Descartes’ Certainty 288

DESCARTES: Meditations on First Philosophy 288
Philosophers at Work: René Descartes 290
Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical

Views 292

6.3 THE EMPIRICIST TURN 293

Locke 293

LOCKE: An Essay Concerning Human
Understanding 293

Berkeley 299

BERKELEY: Of the Principles of Human
Knowledge 300

Hume 303
Philosophers at Work: David Hume 304

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HUME: An Enquiry Concerning Human
Understanding 305

Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical
Views 310

6.4 THE KANTIAN COMPROMISE 311

KANT: Critique of Pure Reason 312
Philosophers at Work: Immanuel Kant 313
Philosophy Now: Conceptualizing the World 316
Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical

Views 319

6.5 A FEMINIST PERSPECTIVE ON KNOWLEDGE 319

AINLEY: “Feminist Philosophy” 320

ANTONY: “Embodiment and Epistemology” 320

ANDERSON: “Feminist Epistemology and
Philosophy of Science” 321

COLE: Philosophy and Feminist Criticism 321
Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical

Views 325

REVIEW NOTES 325

Writing to Understand: Arguing Your Own
Views 328

KEY TERMS 329

FICTION: Lewis Carroll, “Through the Looking-Glass” 330

PROBING QUESTIONS 330

FOR FURTHER READING 331

CHAPTER 7 AESTHETICS 332

7.1 OVERVIEW: PHILOSOPHY OF BEAUTY 333

Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical
Views 333

7.2 WHAT IS ART? 333

Philosophy Now: Is It Art? 334

BELL: Art 335
Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical

Views 335

Philosophy Now: Controversial Art 336

Contents xixxviii Contents

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7.3 AESTHETIC VALUE 338

Philosophers at Work: Arthur C. Danto 339
Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical

Views 340

7.4 PLATO, ARISTOTLE, AND HUME 340

ARISTOTLE: The Poetics 340
Philosophy Lab 341

HUME: Of the Standard of Taste 343
Philosophy Now: Feminist Art 344
Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical

Views 348

REVIEW NOTES 349

Writing to Understand: Arguing Your Own
Views 350

KEY TERMS 350

FICTION: Edgar Allan Poe, “The Oval Portrait” 351

PROBING QUESTIONS 352

FOR FURTHER READING 352

CHAPTER 8 THE JUST SOCIETY 354

8.1 OVERVIEW: JUSTICE AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY 355

What Do You Believe? Political Views in
Flux 358

Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical
Views 359

8.2 PLATO’S THEORY: JUSTICE AS MERIT 360

PLATO: The Republic 361
Philosophy Now: Merit or Equality: Who Gets

to Live? 363
Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical

Views 364

8.3 SOCIAL CONTRACT THEORIES 364

Hobbes 365
Philosophers at Work: Thomas Hobbes 365

HOBBES: Leviathan 366

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Locke 370

LOCKE: Second Treatise of Government 371

Rawls 375
Philosophers at Work: John Locke 375

RAWLS: A Theory of Justice 376
Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical

Views 378

8.4 SOCIALIST THEORIES 379

Philosophy Lab 380
Philosophy Now: Is the United States a Socialist

Country? 381

MARX and ENGELS: Manifesto of the Communist
Party 381

Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical
Views 387

8.5 FEMINISM AND SOCIAL JUSTICE 387

OKIN: Justice, Gender, and the Family 388

MILLER: Political Philosophy 392
Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical

Views 392

REVIEW NOTES 393

Writing to Understand: Arguing Your Own
Views 395

KEY TERMS 395

FICTION: William Golding, “Lord of the Flies” 397

PROBING QUESTIONS 405

FOR FURTHER READING 405

CHAPTER 9 THE MEANING OF LIFE 406

9.1 OVERVIEW: PHILOSOPHY AND THE MEANING

OF LIFE 407

Philosophy Lab 410

9.2 PESSIMISM: LIFE HAS NO MEANING 411

TOLSTOY: My Confession 411

xx Contents

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SCHOPENHAUER: “On the Sufferings of the
World” 413

BAGGINI: What’s It All About? 414
Philosophy Now: Nietzsche: Reflections

on Meaning 415

9.3 OPTIMISM: LIFE CAN HAVE MEANING 416

Meaning from Above 416

TOLSTOY: My Confession 416
Philosophy Now: Is Religion Necessary

for a Meaningful Life? 419

BAGGINI: What’s It All About? 420

Meaning from Below 421

EDWARDS: The Encyclopedia of Philosophy 421

REVIEW NOTES 426

What Do You Believe? What Can and Cannot
Give Life Meaning? 427

Writing to Understand: Arguing Your Own
Views 428

FICTION: Voltaire, “The Good Brahmin” 429

PROBING QUESTIONS 430

FOR FURTHER READING 430

Appendix A: The Truth about Philosophy Majors 431

Appendix B: Answers to Exercises 437

Appendix C: How to Write a Philosophy Paper 441

Notes 451

Glossary 457

Credits 461

Index of Marginal Quotations 463

General Index 465

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xxi

This third edition of Philosophy Here and Now stays true to the aspirations and char-
acter of the first and second. From the beginning, the text has been designed to
provide an extraordinary amount of encouragement and guidance to students who
are encountering philosophy for the first (and perhaps last) time. Its ambitious aim is
to get such students to take some big steps toward understanding, appreciating, and
even doing philosophy. Philosophy Here and Now thus tries to do a great deal more
than most other texts or readers. To foster a serious understanding of philosophy, it
includes solid coverage of critical thinking skills and argument basics as well as guid-
ance and practice in reading philosophical works. Students of course can appreciate
the point and power of philosophy as they comprehend philosophical writings, but
their appreciation blossoms when they see how philosophical issues and reasoning
play out in contemporary society and how philosophical insights apply to their own
lives. So the book’s coverage and pedagogical features help students grasp philoso-
phy’s relevance and timeliness. Students learn how to do philosophy—to think and
write philosophically—when they get encouragement and practice in analyzing and
critiquing their own views and those of the philosophers they study. To this end,
Philosophy Here and Now emphasizes philosophical writing, reinforced with step-
by-step coaching in how to write argumentative essays and supported by multiple
opportunities to hone basic skills.

In addition to these core elements, Philosophy Here and Now further engages
today’s learners with abundant illustrations and color graphics; marginal notes,
questions, and quotes; profiles of a diverse array of philosophers; and ample repre-
sentation of non-Western and nontraditional sources.

TOPICS AND READINGS

Nine chapters cover the existence of God, morality and the moral life, mind and
body, free will and determinism, knowledge and skepticism, aesthetics, political
philosophy, and the meaning of life. These topics are explored in readings from
seventy-five traditional and contemporary philosophers integrated into the main
text, featuring both indispensable standards and newer selections. The standards
include Plato, Aristotle, Aquinas, Pascal, Anselm, Descartes, Hume, Hobbes, Locke,
Berkeley, Kant, d’Holbach, Paley, James, Sartre, Marx, and others. Among the more
recent voices are Searle, Chalmers, Craig, Swinburne, Hick, Mackie, Rowe, Gard-
ner, Blum, Dershowitz, Rahula, Jaggar, Held, Baier, Nagel, Block, Van Inwagen,
Taylor, Du Sautoy, Ducasse, Cole, Ainley, Rawls, Okin, and Schopenhauer.

All these selections are juxtaposed with end-of-chapter pieces of fiction or
narrative—stories meant to explore and dramatize the philosophical issues encountered

PREFACE

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in the chapters. They include some classic stories such as “The Good Brahmin” by
Voltaire, “The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas” by Ursula Le Guin, and “They’re
Made Out of Meat” by Terry Bisson, as well as lesser-known fiction by notable writers
like Arthur C. Clarke and William Golding. Each story is accompanied by discus-
sion/essay questions designed to draw out its philosophical implications.

MAIN FEATURES

• A comprehensive introductory chapter that lays the groundwork for philo-
sophical thinking. Through examples drawn from philosophical literature and
everyday life, this chapter explains clearly the nature and scope of philosophy
and how it relates to students’ lives. This much, of course, is what any good text
in this field should do. But this first chapter also shows how to devise and evalu-
ate arguments and guides students in critically thinking, reading, and writing
about philosophical issues.

• Critical thinking questions that correspond to relevant passages in the main
text or readings. These questions, located in the margins of the text, invite stu-
dents to ponder the implications of the material and to think critically about
the assumptions and arguments found there. The questions are numbered and
highlighted and easily lend themselves to both writing assignments and class
discussion. The point of their marginal placement is to prompt students to think
carefully and analytically as they read.

• Four types of text boxes that demonstrate the value and relevance of philoso-
phy in the modern world:

• “Philosophy Now”—These boxes contain news items and research reports
that illustrate how each chapter’s philosophical issues permeate everyday life.
They demonstrate that philosophical concerns arise continually in science,
society, ethics, religion, politics, medicine, and more. Each box ends with
questions that prompt critical thinking and philosophical reflection.

• “What Do You Believe?”—Prompting student engagement and reflec-
tion, these boxes explore issues related to the chapter’s topics and challenge
students’ beliefs.

• “Philosophers at Work”—These boxes profile the lives and work of com-
pelling figures in philosophy, past and present, Western and non-Western or
nontraditional, men and women. Some feature philosophers from the past
whose story adds a human and historical dimension to the ideas discussed in
the chapter, and some profile contemporary thinkers who are grappling with
the important issues of the day. The point of these features is, of course, to
show that philosophy is very much a living, relevant enterprise.

• “Philosophy Lab”—These boxes present simple thought experiments chal-
lenging students to think through scenarios that can reveal deeper philo-
sophical insights or perspectives.

• In-depth coverage of philosophical writing includes step-by-step coaching in
argument basics and multiple opportunities to hone critical thinking skills.

Preface xxiiixxii Preface

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• “Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical Views”—These boxes
appear at the end of each section and consist of essay questions that prompt
students to critically examine the strengths and weaknesses of the views dis-
cussed in the sections.

• “Writing to Understand: Arguing Your Own Views”—These boxes
prompt students to explain and defend their own views on the chapter’s
topics in short essays.

• “How to Write a Philosophy Paper”—This appendix offers concise, step-
by-step guidance in crafting an effective philosophical essay.

• A final chapter on “The Meaning of Life.” This chapter discusses how philoso-
phers have clarified and explored the topic of life’s meaning. It covers the main
philosophical perspectives on the subject and samples the views of philosophers
past and present.

All these features are supplemented with other elements to make the material
even more engaging and accessible:

• Marginal quotes. These pithy, compelling quotes from an array of philosophers
appear throughout the text, inviting students to join the ongoing conversation
of philosophy.

• Key Terms, marginal definitions, and end-of-book Glossary. Key Terms in
each chapter appear in boldface at their first appearance in a chapter, and mar-
ginal definitions help students learn the terms within their immediate context. A
list of the chapter’s Key Terms appears at the end of each chapter, along with the
page numbers on which the term and its definition first appear. Last, a Glossary
of those Key Terms and definitions provides an essential reference for students as
they review and prepare for tests as well as draft their own philosophical essays
and arguments.

• Chapter Objectives. This list at the beginning of each chapter helps to scaffold
student learning by providing both structure and support for previewing, note
taking, and retention of content.

• End-of-chapter reviews. Concluding each chapter, this feature revisits the
Chapter Objectives, encouraging students to reflect and review.

• An index of marginal quotes. This supplemental index helps students locate the
words of philosophers that seem especially insightful or inspiring to them.

• For Further reading. Located at the end of each chapter, these useful references
point students to sources that will enhance their understanding of chapter issues
and arguments.

• Timeline. Featuring philosophers’ lives and important events, this visual learn-
ing tool helps students appreciate the historic significance of philosophical ideas
by placing them within a larger context.

• Charts, tables, and color photos. Appearing throughout the book, these have
been selected or created to deepen student engagement with and understanding
of complex ideas and abstract concepts. In addition, captions for these images
include brief, open-ended questions to help students “read” visuals with the same
critical attention they learn to bring to written texts.

Preface xxvxxiv Preface

vau52344_fm_i-xxvi xxiv 05/23/18 12:43 PM

NEW TO THIS EDITION

• An expanded chapter on aesthetics (Chapter 7). It covers issues relating to the
definition of art, objective and subjective standards, feminist art, controversial
artworks, online art, and the philosophical examination of art by Plato, Aristotle,
Hume, Gardner, Ducasse, and Danto. Several new photos illustrate feminist art,
controversial art, and art that provokes discussion about what art is and isn’t.

• Expanded coverage in Chapter 9 (The Meaning of Life). In addition to in-
cluding readings by Tolstoy, Schopenhauer, Baggini, and Edwards (and com-
mentary on Nietzsche), the text now adds four more philosophers who debate
the objectivity of meaning in life. Klemke and Lucretius lay out their case for
subjectivist meaning, and Wolf and Belshaw argue for objectivist meaning.

• More history of philosophy in Chapter 1. Now there’s coverage of the pre-
Socratics Thales, Empedocles, and Parmenides, as well as four early women phi-
losophers: Hypatia, Themistoclea, Arignote, and Theano.

• More text boxes adding depth to discussions …

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