ESSAY 4012

Terrorism and Homeland Security, 9e
CHAPTER 1 Jonathan R. White

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Learning Objectives, Part 1
Explain the reason terrorism is difficult to define.
Summarize the impact of context on definitions of terrorism.
Explain the importance of defining terrorism.
Outline contemporary attempts to define terrorism.
Explain where the term terrorism originated and how the meaning changed during the history of the nineteenth century.
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Learning Objectives, Part 2
Explain how socialism, anarchism, and communism were mistakenly associated with terrorism.
Summarize the differing meanings of terrorism in Russia from the Peoples’ Will through the rise of Lenin, Trotsky, and Stalin.
Summarize the early history of the Irish Republican Army.
Define the term selective terrorism as used by Michael Collins.
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The Difficulty with Definitions, Part 1
Terrorism is difficult to define.
It is a social construct—terrorism is defined by different people within vacillating social and political realities.
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The Difficulty with Definitions, Part 2
The term has spawned heated debate because it is nebulous and pejorative.
The term evokes a variety of politically charged responses.
As a result, there are many definitions of terrorism and no single accepted understanding.
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Influence of Social Construct, Part 1
Terrorism is defined within social and political contexts.
Different meanings in different periods of time.
Different meanings in different contexts within the same period of time.
Primary reason no single definition of terrorism will ever be successful.
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Influence of Social Construct, Part 2
Social context influences definition of terrorism, for example:
U.S. State Department Anti-Terrorism Assistance views Hezbollah as terrorist group; Jordanians’ view Hezbollah as a legitimate militia.
Israel views their actions as a means of self-defense; Lebanon views the same actions as acts of terrorism.
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Influence of Social Construct, Part 3
When the term terrorism was first introduced in Western history, governments adjusted their policies based on the way they defined terrorism.
This process is evidenced by recent changes in American defense and law enforcement policy.
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French Revolution, Part 1
The French Revolution was the first revolution in the modern sense of the word.
The term terrorism appeared during the French Revolution.
Terrorism described the actions of the new government.
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French Revolution, Part 2
The meaning of terrorism underwent a subtle transformation during the Napoleonic Wars.
The meaning shifted away from governmental repression to the resistance of some people to governments.
This definitional change would continue through the 19th century.
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Guerrillas and the Spanish Peninsula
In Spain, guerrilla warfare served as an asymmetrical method of resisting the French revolutionary army.
Guerrilla warfare signaled an ideological transformation in the meaning of war.
Guerrilla movements helped to set the stage for terrorism.
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1848 and the Radical Democrats
When a small minority of the radical democrats called for violence and terrorism people with political power began to label all types of activism, violent or not, as terrorism.
Terrorism as it is known today came into its infancy.
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Socialism, Anarchism, and Communism, Part 1
Three strains of radical democrats coalesced after the failed revolutions of 1848:
Communists
Socialists
Anarchists
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Socialism, Anarchism, and Communism, Part 2
Socialism: refers to controlling an economy by direct democracy and utilizing economic profits to ensure the well-being of citizens.
Socialists believed that a strong state would ensure that profits from industry were distributed in an egalitarian manner.
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Socialism, Anarchism, and Communism, Part 3
Anarchism is a philosophical concept originating in ancient Greece.
In the 18th century anarchists generally disavowed the power of national governments.
Pierre Joseph Proudhon (1809-1865)
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Socialism, Anarchism, and Communism, Part 4
Communism: in its ideal form is socialism where economic production and profits are owned and distributed by workers.
Karl Marx (1818-1883)
Friedrich Engels (1820-1895)
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Violent Anarchism
Socialists and anarchists debated the efficacy and morality of violence, and most of the people who called for revolution spoke of mass action, not individual violence.
Walter Lacquer says socialists and anarchists rejected terrorism on practical and theoretical grounds.
Richard Jensen believes that the initial calls in history for revolution cannot be associated with terrorism.
Several factors merged to create a culture of terrorism among some members of the anarchist movement.
With the invention of dynamite, a small group had a technological force multiplier that allowed it to launch a major attack.
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Anarchism and Nationalism, Part 1
Terrorism in the modern sense came from violent anarchists in the late 1800s.
The most successful actions took place in Russia before the 1905 and 1917 revolutions.
Anarchist groups assassinated several Russian officials, including the czar.
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Anarchism and Nationalism, Part 2
Anarchism spread to the United States in the form of labor violence.
American anarchists saw themselves linked to organized labor.
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The Peoples’ Will
Narodnaya Voyla (the Peoples’ Will) advocated violent socialist revolution.
Violent revolution was espoused by Russian writers; however, no single theme dominated the revolutionaries until it was imposed by the state under Lenin.
Members of the Peoples’ Will came to believe that it was necessary to terrorize conservative organizations into submission.
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Russia After 1850
Three groups in Russia after 1850 felt that they could reform and modernize the Russian state:
Czar Alexander’s followers wanted to modernize Russia from the top down.
The intellectuals wanted Russia to become a liberal Western democracy.
Violent anarchists believed revolution was the answer.
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Lenin and Trotsky
Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924) and Leon Trotsky (1879–1940) believed that terrorism should be used as an instrument for overthrowing the bourgeois, governments.
Once power was achieved, Lenin and Trotsky advocated terrorism as a means of controlling internal enemies.
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Irish Republic Army – Early History, Part 1
The Irish have never ruled their island as a single political entity, and the Irish have experienced some type of foreign domination for hundreds of centuries.
By the 20th century the struggle in Ireland became a matter of the divisions between:
Unionists, people wanting to remain in the Great Britain and Ireland, and
Republicans, people wanting independence.
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Irish Republic Army – Early History, Part 2
The Republican military solution came when the Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB) formed in the 1850s.
Irish Republican Army (IRA) began with a campaign of violence sponsored by the IRB in the late 1800s.
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The Easter Rising, Part 1
The British had promised home rule to Ireland when World War I came to an end.
Easter in 1916, Patrick Pearse and James Connolly led a revolt in Dublin.
The 1916 Easter Rising enjoyed local success because it surprised everyone.
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The Easter Rising, Part 2
The British handed down several dozen death sentences and imprisoned hundreds more for the Easter Rising.
British actions virtually empowered Sinn Fein.
Public sympathy shifted to the rebels.
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The Black and Tan War (1920 to 1921)
Sinn Fein, the political party of Irish republicanism, continued its activities in spite of the failure of the Easter Rising.
British government rejected Home Rule at the end of WWI.
Sinn Fein moved into the arena by discrediting the Parliamentary Party.
Moderation fell to the wayside as extreme republicanism increased.
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Selective Terror, Part 1
Michael Collins developed a strategy called “selective terrorism.”
Collins reasoned that indiscriminate terror was of no value.
Random or large-scale attacks would alienate public opinion.
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Selective Terror, Part 2
To be effective, terrorism had to selectively and ruthlessly target security forces and their symbols of authority.
Collins’s men ambushed off-duty police and intelligence officers and murdered them.
In crowded areas, IRA terrorists would throw bombs and shoot police officers, then disappear before authorities could respond.
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Separation and Independence
In 1921, southern Ireland became the Free State – the Republic of Ireland.
Collins along the majority of people in Ireland accepted the treaty.
The IRA did not.
A civil war broke out in the newly formed republic—Ireland became a divided country.
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Chapter Take-Aways
Terrorism is defined within social and political contexts and means different things in different time periods.
Definitions of terrorism are important to guide policy.
Terrorism originated during the French Revolution. By century’s end it was used as a label for anarchists and nationalists.
Socialism refers to controlling an economy by direct democracy and utilizing economic profits to ensure the well being of citizens. Anarchism is a philosophical concept originating in ancient Greece. Communism in its ideal form is socialism where economic production and profits are owned and distributed by workers.
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Copyright © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

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