Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury
PART I: The Hearth and The Salamander
IT WAS A PLEASURE TO BURN
IT was a special pleasure to see things eaten, to see things blackened and changed. With the brass
nozzle in his fists, with this great python spitting its venomous kerosene upon the world, the blood
pounded in his head, and his hands were the hands of some amazing conductor playing all the
symphonies of blazing and burning to bring down the tatters and charcoal ruins of history. With his
symbolic helmet numbered 451 on his stolid head, and his eyes all orange flame with the thought of
what came next, he flicked the igniter and the house jumped up in a gorging fire that burned the
evening sky red and yellow and black. He strode in a swarm of fireflies. He wanted above all, like
the old joke, to shove a marshmallow on a stick in the furnace, while the flapping pigeon-winged
books died on the porch and lawn of the house. While the books went up in sparkling whirls and
blew away on a wind turned dark with burning.
Montag grinned the fierce grin of all men singed and driven back by flame.
He knew that when he returned to the firehouse, he might wink at himself, a minstrel man, burnt-
corked, in the mirror. Later, going to sleep, he would feel the fiery smile still gripped by his face
muscles, in the dark. It never went away, that. smile, it never ever went away, as long as he
He hung up his black-beetle-coloured helmet and shined it, he hung his flameproof jacket neatly; he
showered luxuriously, and then, whistling, hands in pockets, walked across the upper floor of the
fire station and fell down the hole. At the last moment, when disaster seemed positive, he pulled his
hands from his pockets and broke his fall by grasping the golden pole. He slid to a squeaking halt,
the heels one inch from the concrete floor downstairs.
He walked out of the fire station and along the midnight street toward the subway where the silent,
air-propelled train slid soundlessly down its lubricated flue in the earth and let him out with a great
puff of warm air an to the cream-tiled escalator rising to the suburb.
Whistling, he let the escalator waft him into the still night air. He walked toward the comer,
thinking little at all about nothing in particular. Before he reached the corner, however, he slowed
as if a wind had sprung up from nowhere, as if someone had called his name.
The last few nights he had had the most uncertain feelings about the sidewalk just around the
corner here, moving in the starlight toward his house. He had felt that a moment before his making
the turn, someone had been there. The air seemed charged with a special calm as if someone had
waited there, quietly, and only a moment before he came, simply turned to a shadow and let him
through. Perhaps his nose detected a faint perfume, perhaps the skin on the backs of his hands, on
his face, felt the temperature rise at this one spot where a person’s standing might raise the
immediate atmosphere ten degrees for an instant. There was no understanding it. Each time he
made the turn, he saw only the white, unused, buckling sidewalk, with perhaps, on one night,
something vanishing swiftly across a lawn before he could focus his eyes or speak.
But now, tonight, he slowed almost to a stop. His inner mind, reaching out to turn the corner for
him, had heard the faintest whisper. Breathing? Or was the atmosphere compressed merely by
someone standing very quietly there, waiting?
He turned the corner.
The autumn leaves blew over the moonlit pavement in such a way as to make the girl who was
moving there seem fixed to a sliding walk, letting the motion of the wind and the leaves carry her
forward. Her head was half bent to watch her shoes stir the circling leaves. Her face was slender
and milk-white, and in it was a kind of gentle hunger that touched over everything with tireless
curiosity. It was a look, almost, of pale surprise; the dark eyes were so fixed to the world that no
Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury
move escaped them. Her dress was white and it whispered. He almost thought he heard the motion
of her hands as she walked, and the infinitely small sound now, the white stir of her face turning
when she discovered she was a moment away from a man who stood in the middle of the pavement
The trees overhead made a great sound of letting down their dry rain. The girl stopped and looked
as if she might pull back in surprise, but instead stood regarding Montag with eyes so dark and
shining and alive, that he felt he had said something quite wonderful. But he knew his mouth had
only moved to say hello, and then when she seemed hypnotized by the salamander on his arm and
the phoenix-disc on his chest, he spoke again.
“Of course,” he said, “you’re a new neighbour, aren’t you?”
“And you must be”-she raised her eyes from his professional symbols-“the fireman.” Her voice
“How oddly you say that.”
“I’d-I’d have known it with my eyes shut,” she said, slowly.
“What-the smell of kerosene? My wife always complains,” he laughed. “You never wash it off
“No, you don’t,” she said, in awe.
He felt she was walking in a circle about him, turning him end for end, shaking him quietly, and
emptying his pockets, without once moving herself.
“Kerosene,” he said, because the silence had lengthened, “is nothing but perfume to me.”
“Does it seem like that, really?”
“Of course. Why not?”
She gave herself time to think of it. “I don’t know.” She turned to face the sidewalk going toward
their homes. “Do you mind if I walk back with you? I’m Clarisse McClellan.”
“Clarisse. Guy Montag. Come along. What are you doing out so late wandering around? How old are
They walked in the warm-cool blowing night on the silvered pavement and there was the faintest
breath of fresh apricots and strawberries in the air, and he looked around and realized this was
quite impossible, so late in the year.
There was only the girl walking with him now, her face bright as snow in the moonlight, and he
knew she was working his questions around, seeking the best answers she could possibly give.
“Well,” she said, “I’m seventeen and I’m crazy. My uncle says the two always go together. When
people ask your age, he said, always say seventeen and insane. Isn’t this a nice time of night to
walk? I like to smell things and look at things, and sometimes stay up all night, walking, and watch
the sun rise.”
They walked on again in silence and finally she said, thoughtfully, “You know, I’m not afraid of you
He was surprised. “Why should you be?”
“So many people are. Afraid of firemen, I mean. But you’re just a man, after all…”
He saw himself in her eyes, suspended in two shining drops of bright water, himself dark and tiny,
in fine detail, the lines about his mouth, everything there, as if her eyes were two miraculous bits of
violet amber that might capture and hold him intact. Her face, turned to him now, was fragile milk
crystal with a soft and constant light in it. It was not the hysterical light of electricity but-what? But
the strangely comfortable and rare and gently flattering light of the candle. One time, when he was a
child, in a power-failure, his mother had found and lit a last candle and there had been a brief hour
of rediscovery, of such illumination that space lost its vast dimensions and drew comfortably
Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury
around them, and they, mother and son, alone, transformed, hoping that the power might not come
on again too soon ….
And then Clarisse McClellan said:
“Do you mind if I ask? How long have you worked at being a fireman?”
“Since I was twenty, ten years ago.”
“Do you ever read any of the books you bum?”
He laughed. “That’s against the law!”
“Oh. Of course.”
“It’s fine work. Monday bum Millay, Wednesday Whitman, Friday Faulkner, burn ’em to ashes, then
bum the ashes. That’s our official slogan.”
They walked still further and the girl said, “Is it true that long ago firemen put fires out instead of
going to start them?”
“No. Houses. have always been fireproof, take my word for it.”
“Strange. I heard once that a long time ago houses used to burn by accident and they needed
firemen to stop the flames.”
She glanced quickly over. “Why are you laughing?”
“I don’t know.” He started to laugh again and stopped “Why?”
“You laugh when I haven’t been funny and you answer right off. You never stop to think what I’ve
He stopped walking, “You are an odd one,” he said, looking at her. “Haven’t you any respect?”
“I don’t mean to be insulting. It’s just, I love to watch people too much, I guess.”
“Well, doesn’t this mean anything to you?” He tapped the numerals 451 stitched on his char-
“Yes,” she whispered. She increased her pace. “Have you ever watched the jet cars racing on the
boulevards down that way?
“You’re changing the subject!”
“I sometimes think drivers don’t know what grass is, or flowers, because they never see them
slowly,” she said. “If you showed a driver a green blur, Oh yes! he’d say, that’s grass! A pink blur?
That’s a rose-garden! White blurs are houses. Brown blurs are cows. My uncle drove slowly on a
highway once. He drove forty miles an hour and they jailed him for two days. Isn’t that funny, and
“You think too many things,” said Montag, uneasily.
“I rarely watch the ‘parlour walls’ or go to races or Fun Parks. So I’ve lots of time for crazy thoughts,
I guess. Have you seen the two-hundred-foot-long billboards in the country beyond town? Did you
know that once billboards were only twenty feet long? But cars started rushing by so quickly they
had to stretch the advertising out so it would last.”
“I didn’t know that!” Montag laughed abruptly.
“Bet I know something else you don’t. There’s dew on the grass in the morning.”
He suddenly couldn’t remember if he had known this or not, and it made him quite irritable.
“And if you look”-she nodded at the sky-“there’s a man in the moon.”
He hadn’t looked for a long time.
They walked the rest of the way in silence, hers thoughtful, his a kind of clenching and
uncomfortable silence in which he shot her accusing glances. When they reached her house all its
lights were blazing.
“What’s going on?” Montag had rarely seen that many house lights.
Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury
“Oh, just my mother and father and uncle sitting around, talking. It’s like being a pedestrian, only
rarer. My uncle was arrested another time-did I tell you?-for being a pedestrian. Oh, we’re most
“But what do you talk about?”
She laughed at this. “Good night!” She started up her walk. Then she seemed to remember
something and came back to look at him with wonder and curiosity. “Are you happy?” she said.
“Am I what?” he cried.
But she was gone-running in the moonlight. Her front door shut gently.
“Happy! Of all the nonsense.”
He stopped laughing.
He put his hand into the glove-hole of his front door and let it know his touch. The front door slid
Of course I’m happy. What does she think? I’m not? he asked the quiet rooms. He stood looking up
at the ventilator grille in the hall and suddenly remembered that something lay hidden behind the
grille, something that seemed to peer down at him now. He moved his eyes quickly away.
What a strange meeting on a strange night. He remembered nothing like it save one afternoon a
year ago when he had met an old man in the park and they had talked ….
Montag shook his head. He looked at a blank wall. The girl’s face was there, really quite beautiful in
memory: astonishing, in fact. She had a very thin face like the dial of a small clock seen faintly in a
dark room in the middle of a night when you waken to see the time and see the clock telling you the
hour and the minute and the second, with a white silence and a glowing, all certainty and knowing
what it has to tell of the night passing swiftly on toward further darknesses but moving also toward
a new sun.
“What?” asked Montag of that other self, the subconscious idiot that ran babbling at times, quite
independent of will, habit, and conscience.
He glanced back at the wall. How like a mirror, too, her face. Impossible; for how many people did
you know that refracted your own light to you? People were more often-he searched for a simile,
found one in his work-torches, blazing away until they whiffed out. How rarely did other people’s
faces take of you and throw back to you your own expression, your own innermost trembling
What incredible power of identification the girl had; she was like the eager watcher of a marionette
show, anticipating each flicker of an eyelid, each gesture of his hand, each flick of a finger, the
moment before it began. How long had they walked together? Three minutes? Five? Yet how large
that time seemed now. How immense a figure she was on the stage before him; what a shadow she
threw on the wall with her slender body! He felt that if his eye itched, she might blink. And if the
muscles of his jaws stretched imperceptibly, she would yawn long before he would.
Why, he thought, now that I think of it, she almost seemed to be waiting for me there, in the street,
so damned late at night … .
He opened the bedroom door.
It was like coming into the cold marbled room of a mausoleum after the moon had set. Complete
darkness, not a hint of the silver world outside, the windows tightly shut, the chamber a tomb-
world where no sound from the great city could penetrate. The room was not empty.
The little mosquito-delicate dancing hum in the air, the electrical murmur of a hidden wasp snug in
its special pink warm nest. The music was almost loud enough so he could follow the tune.
He felt his smile slide away, melt, fold over, and down on itself like a tallow skin, like the stuff of a
fantastic candle burning too long and now collapsing and now blown out. Darkness. He was not
Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury
happy. He was not happy. He said the words to himself. He recognized this as the true state of
affairs. He wore his happiness like a mask and the girl had run off across the lawn with the mask
and there was no way of going to knock on her door and ask for it back.
Without turning on the light he imagined how this room would look. His wife stretched on the bed,
uncovered and cold, like a body displayed on the lid of a tomb, her eyes fixed to the ceiling by
invisible threads of steel, immovable. And in her ears the little Seashells, the thimble radios tamped
tight, and an electronic ocean of sound, of music and talk and music and talk coming in, coming in
on the shore of her unsleeping mind. The room was indeed empty. Every night the waves came in
and bore her off on their great tides of sound, floating her, wide-eyed, toward morning. There had
been no night in the last two years that Mildred had not swum that sea, had not gladly gone down in
it for the third time.
The room was cold but nonetheless he felt he could not breathe. He did not wish to open the
curtains and open the french windows, for he did not want the moon to come into the room. So,
with the feeling of a man who will die in the next hour for lack of air,.he felt his way toward his
open, separate, and therefore cold bed.
An instant before his foot hit the object on the floor he knew he would hit such an object. It was not
unlike the feeling he had experienced before turning the corner and almost knocking the girl down.
His foot, sending vibrations ahead, received back echoes of the small barrier across its path even as
the foot swung. His foot kicked. The object gave a dull clink and slid off in darkness.
He stood very straight and listened to the person on the dark bed in the completely featureless
night. The breath coming out of the nostrils was so faint it stirred only the furthest fringes of life, a
small leaf, a black feather, a single fibre of hair.
He still did not want outside light. He pulled out his igniter, felt the salamander etched on its silver
disc, gave it a flick….
Two moonstones looked up at him in the light of his small hand-held fire; two pale moonstones
buried in a creek of clear water over which the life of the world ran, not touching them.
“Mildred ! ”
Her face was like a snow-covered island upon which rain might fall; but it felt no rain; over which
clouds might pass their moving shadows, but she felt no shadow. There was only the singing of the
thimble-wasps in her tamped-shut ears, and her eyes all glass, and breath going in and out, softly,
faintly, in and out of her nostrils, and her not caring whether it came or went, went or came.
The object he had sent tumbling with his foot now glinted under the edge of his own bed. The small
crystal bottle of sleeping-tablets which earlier today had been filled with thirty capsules and which
now lay uncapped and empty in the light of the tiny flare.
As he stood there the sky over the house screamed. There was a tremendous ripping sound as if
two giant hands had torn ten thousand miles of black linen down the seam. Montag was cut in half.
He felt his chest chopped down and split apart. The jet-bombs going over, going over, going over,
one two, one two, one two, six of them, nine of them, twelve of them, one and one and one and
another and another and another, did all the screaming for him. He opened his own mouth and let
their shriek come down and out between his bared teeth. The house shook. The flare went out in his
hand. The moonstones vanished. He felt his hand plunge toward the telephone.
The jets were gone. He felt his lips move, brushing the mouthpiece of the phone. “Emergency
hospital.” A terrible whisper.
He felt that the stars had been pulverized by the sound of the black jets and that in the morning the
earth would be thought as he stood shivering in the dark, and let his lips go on moving and moving.
They had this machine. They had two machines, really. One of them slid down into your stomach
like a black cobra down an echoing well looking for all the old water and the old time gathered
Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury
there. It drank up the green matter that flowed to the top in a slow boil. Did it drink of the
darkness? Did it suck out all the poisons accumulated with the years? It fed in silence with an
occasional sound of inner suffocation and blind searching. It had an Eye. The impersonal operator
of the machine could, by wearing a special optical helmet, gaze into the soul of the person whom he
was pumping out. What did the Eye see? He did not say. He saw but did not see what the Eye saw.
The entire operation was not unlike the digging of a trench in one’s yard. The woman on the bed
was no more than a hard stratum of marble they had reached. Go on, anyway, shove the bore down,
slush up the emptiness, if such a thing could be brought out in the throb of the suction snake. The
operator stood smoking a cigarette. The other machine was working too.
The other machine was operated by an equally impersonal fellow in non-stainable reddish-brown
overalls. This machine pumped all of the blood from the body and replaced it with fresh blood and
“Got to clean ’em out both ways,” said the operator, standing over the silent woman. “No use getting
the stomach if you don’t clean the blood. Leave that stuff in the blood and the blood hits the brain
like a mallet, bang, a couple of thousand times and the brain just gives up, just quits.”
“Stop it!” said Montag.
“I was just sayin’,” said the operator.
“Are you done?” said Montag.
They shut the machines up tight. “We’re done.” His anger did not even touch them. They stood with
the cigarette smoke curling around their noses and into their eyes without making them blink or
squint. “That’s fifty bucks.”
“First, why don’t you tell me if she’ll be all right?”
“Sure, she’ll be O.K. We got all the mean stuff right in our suitcase here, it can’t get at her now. As I
said, you take out the old and put in the new and you’re O.K.”
“Neither of you is an M.D. Why didn’t they send an M.D. from Emergency?”
“Hell! ” the operator’s cigarette moved on his lips. “We get these cases nine or ten a night. Got so
many, starting a few years ago, we had the special machines built. With the optical lens, of course,
that was new; the rest is ancient. You don’t need an M.D., case like this; all you need is two
handymen, clean up the problem in half an hour. Look”-he started for the door-“we gotta go. Just
had another call on the old ear-thimble. Ten blocks from here. Someone else just jumped off the cap
of a pillbox. Call if you need us again. Keep her quiet. We got a contra-sedative in her. She’ll wake up
hungry. So long.”
And the men with the cigarettes in their straight-lined mouths, the men with the eyes of puff-
adders, took up their load of machine and tube, their case of liquid melancholy and the slow dark
sludge of nameless stuff, and strolled out the door.
Montag sank down into a chair and looked at this woman. Her eyes were closed now, gently, and he
put out his hand to feel the warmness of breath on his palm.
“Mildred,” he said, at last.
There are too many of us, he thought. There are billions of us and that’s too many. Nobody knows
anyone. Strangers come and violate you. Strangers come and cut your heart out. Strangers come
and take your blood. Good God, who were those men? I never saw them before in my life!
Half an hour passed.
The bloodstream in this woman was new and it seemed to have done a new thing to her. Her cheeks
were very pink and her lips were very fresh and full of colour and they looked soft and relaxed.
Someone else’s blood there. If only someone else’s flesh and brain and memory. If only they could
have taken her mind along to the dry-cleaner’s and emptied the pockets and steamed and cleansed
it and reblocked it and brought it back in the morning. If only . . .
Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury
He got up and put back the curtains and opened the windows wide to let the night air in. It was two
o’clock in the morning. Was it only an hour ago, Clarisse McClellan in the street, and him coming in,
and the dark room and his foot kicking the little crystal bottle? Only an hour, but the world had
melted down and sprung up in a new and colourless form.
Laughter blew across the moon-coloured lawn from the house of Clarisse and her father and
mother and the uncle who smiled so quietly and so earnestly. Above all, their laughter was relaxed
and hearty and not forced in any way, coming from the house that was so brightly lit this late at
night while all the other houses were kept to themselves in darkness. Montag heard the voices
talking, talking, talking, giving, talking, weaving, reweaving their hypnotic web.
Montag moved out through the french windows and crossed the lawn, without even thinking of it.
He stood outside the talking house in the shadows, thinking he might even tap on their door and
whisper, “Let me come in. I won’t say anything. I just want to listen. What is it you’re saying?”
But instead he stood there, very cold, his face a mask of ice, listening to a man’s voice (the uncle?)
moving along at an easy pace:
“Well, after all, this is the age of the disposable tissue. Blow your nose on a person, wad them, flush
them away, reach for another, blow, wad, flush. Everyone using everyone else’s coattails. How are
you supposed to root for the home team when you don’t even have a programme or know the
names? For that matter, what colour jerseys are they wearing as they trot out on to the field?”
Montag moved back to his own house, left the window wide, checked Mildred, tucked the covers
about her carefully, and then lay down with the moonlight on his cheek-bones and on the frowning
ridges in his brow, with the moonlight distilled in each eye to form a silver cataract there.
One drop of rain. Clarisse. Another drop. Mildred. A third. The uncle. A fourth. The fire tonight. One,
Clarisse. Two, Mildred. Three, uncle. Four, fire, One, Mildred, two, Clarisse. One, two, three, four,
five, Clarisse, Mildred, uncle, fire, sleeping-tablets, men, disposable tissue, coat-tails, blow, wad,
flush, Clarisse, Mildred, uncle, fire, tablets, tissues, blow, wad, flush. One, two, three, one, two, three!
Rain. The storm. The uncle laughing. Thunder falling downstairs. The whole world pouring down.
The fire gushing up in a volcano. All rushing on down around in a spouting roar and rivering stream
“I don’t know anything any more,” he said, and let a sleep-lozenge dissolve on his tongue.
At nine in the morning, Mildred’s bed was empty.
Montag got up quickly, his heart pumping, and ran down the hall and stopped at the kitchen door.
Toast popped out of the silver toaster, was seized by a spidery metal hand that drenched it with
Mildred watched the toast delivered to her plate. She had both ears plugged with electronic bees
that were humming the hour away. She looked up suddenly, saw him, and nodded.
“You all right?” he asked.
She was an expert at lip-reading from ten years of apprenticeship at Seashell ear-thimbles. She
nodded again. She set the toaster clicking away at another piece of bread.
Montag sat down.
His wife said, “I don’t know why I should be so hungry.”
“Last night,” he began.
“Didn’t sleep well. Feel terrible,” she said. “God, I’m hungry. I can’t figure it.”
“Last night-” he said again.
She watched his lips casually. “What about last night?”
“Don’t you remember?”
Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury
“What? Did we have a wild party or something? Feel like I’ve a hangover. God, I’m hungry. Who was
“A few people,” he said.
“That’s what I thought.” She chewed her toast. “Sore stomach, but I’m hungry as all-get-out. Hope I
didn’t do anything foolish at the party.”
“No,” he said, quietly.
The toaster spidered out a piece of buttered bread for him. He held it in his hand, feeling grateful.
“You don’t look so hot yourself,” said his wife.
In the late afternoon it rained and the entire world was dark grey. He stood in the hall of his house,
putting on his badge with the orange salamander burning across it. He stood looking up at the air-
conditioning vent in the hall for a long time. His wife in the TV parlour paused long enough from
reading her script to glance up. “Hey,” she said. “The man’s THINKING!”
“Yes,” he said. “I wanted to talk to you.” He paused. “You took all the pills in your bottle last night.”
“Oh, I wouldn’t do that,” she said, surprised.
“The bottle was empty.”
“I wouldn’t do a thing like that. Why would I do a thing like that?” she asked.
“Maybe you took two pills and forgot and took two more, and forgot again and took two more, and
were so dopy you kept right on until you had thirty or forty of them in you.”
“Heck,” she said, “what would I want to go and do a silly thing like that for?”
“I don’t know,” he said.
She was quite obviously waiting for him to go. “I didn’t do that,” she said. “Never in a billion years.”
“All right if you say so,” he said.
“That’s what the lady said.” She turned back to her script.
“What’s on this afternoon?” he asked tiredly.
She didn’t look up from her script again. “Well, this is a play comes on the wall-to-wall circuit in ten
minutes. They mailed me my part this morning. I sent in some box-tops. They write the script with
one part missing. It’s a new idea. The home-maker, that’s me, is the missing part. When it comes
time for the missing lines, they all look at me out of the three walls and I say the lines: Here, for
instance, the man says, `What do you think of this whole idea, Helen?’ And he looks at me sitting
here centre stage, see? And I say, I say –” She paused and ran her finger under a line in the script. ”
`I think that’s fine!’ And then they go on with the play until he says, `Do you agree to that, Helen!’
and I say, `I sure do!’ Isn’t that fun, Guy?”
He stood in the hall looking at her.
“It’s sure fun,” she said. …
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