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Theory and PracTice

UPdaTed ediTion

Eleventh Edition

Jacques P. Thiroux

Keith W. Krasemann

College of DuPage

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Editor in Chief: Ashley Dodge
Editorial Assistant: Stephanie Ruland
Managing Editor: Amber Mackey
Program Manager: Carly Czech
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Text Font: ITCGaramondStd Book 10/12

Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this
textbook appear on appropriate page within text.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Thiroux, Jacques P.
Ethics : Theory and Practice / Jacques P. Thiroux, Keith W. Krasemann,
College of DuPage.—Eleventh edition, updated edition.
pages cm
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-0-13-380405-8—ISBN 0-13-380405-4
1. Ethics—Textbooks. 2. Ethical problems—Textbooks. I. Krasemann, Keith W. II. Title.
BJ1012.T47 2015

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

ISBN 10: 0-133-80405-4
ISBN 13: 978-0-133-80405-8

Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America. This publication is protected by copyright, and permission should
be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or
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trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark
claim, the designations have been printed in initial caps or all caps.

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This edition is dedicated to the memory of Jacques P. Thiroux,
August 7, 1928–February 2, 2006

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Preface xi

Chapter 1 The Nature of Morality 1
Learning objectives 1

What is Philosophy and ethics’ relationship to it? 1

definition of Key Terms 2

approaches to the Study of Morality 5

Morality and its applications 7

Where does Morality come From? 11

customary or Traditional and reflective Morality 15

Morality, Law, and religion 16

Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral development 21

Why Should human Beings Be Moral? 23
Chapter Summary 25

■ Ethics Problem 28
Critical Thinking Questions 28  •  Notes 29

Chapter 2 Consequentialist (Teleological) Theories of Morality 30
Learning objectives 30

Psychological egoism 31

ethical egoism 32

Utilitarianism 37

difficulty with consequentialist Theories in General 41

care ethics 41
Chapter Summary 43

■ Ethics Problem 44
Critical Thinking Questions 44  •  Notes 45

Chapter 3 Nonconsequentialist (Deontological) Theories
of Morality 46

Learning objectives 46

act nonconsequentialist Theories 47

rule nonconsequentialist Theories 49

General criticisms of nonconsequentialist Theories 55

conclusions 56
Chapter Summary 57

■ Ethics Problem 59
Critical Thinking Questions 59  •  Notes 60


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Chapter 4 Virtue Ethics 61
Learning objectives 61

definition of Terms 61

aristotle’s nicomachean ethics 62

confucian Moral Self-cultivation 63

confucian role ethics 66

contemporary analysis of Virtue ethics 68

Who is the ideal Virtuous Person? 70

Vice and Virtue 71

conclusions 73
Chapter Summary 74

■ Ethics Problem 75
Critical Thinking Questions 75  •  Notes 76

Chapter 5 Absolutism Versus Relativism 77
Learning objectives 77

The Meanings of Absolute 78
The Meaning of Relative 78
cultural relativism and cultural absolutism 79

Propositions and Truth 80

conclusion 87
Chapter Summary 88

■ Ethics Problem 89
Critical Thinking Questions 89  •  Notes 90

Chapter 6 Freedom Versus Determinism 91
Learning objectives 91

The Meaning of Determinism 91
Types and Theories of determinism 92

Fatalism and hard and Soft determinism 96

indeterminism 99

criticisms of hard determinism and arguments for
Freedom 99

conclusion: Soft determinism 102
Chapter Summary 102

■ Ethics Problem 104
Critical Thinking Questions 104  •  Notes 105

Chapter 7 Reward and Punishment 106
Learning objectives 106

definition of Key Terms 106

reward and Punishment in relationship to
Justice 107

elements of Justice 107

reward 108

vi Contents

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Theories of How to Reward 113

John Rawls and His Theory of Justice 114

Punishment 116

Theories of Punishment 118

Is a Synthesis Possible? 126

Human Rights 128
Chapter Summary 131

■ Ethics Problem 136
Critical Thinking Questions 136  •  Notes 136

Chapter 8 Setting Up a Moral System: Basic Assumptions
and Basic Principles 138
Learning Objectives 138

Conflicting General Moral Issues 139

Basic Assumptions 140

Basic Principles, Individual Freedom, and Their Justification 144

Priority of the Basic Principles 152

A General Way of Determining Priority—Two Categories 152

How the System of Humanitarian Ethics Works 155

Conclusion 157
Chapter Summary 158  •  Critical Thinking
Questions 159  •  Note 159

Chapter 9 The Taking of Human Life 160
Learning Objectives 160

The Taking of Human Life 160

Suicide 160

Defense of the Innocent (The Self Included) 164

War 165

Terrorism 168

Capital Punishment 171
Chapter Summary 176

■ Ethics Problem 178
Views of the Major Ethical Theories on the Taking of Human
Life 178  •  Critical Thinking Questions 181  •  Notes 182

Chapter 10 Allowing Someone to Die, Mercy Death, and Mercy Killing 183
Learning Objectives 183

Definition of Terms 183

Current Legal Status of Mercy Death and Mercy Killing 184

Allowing Someone to Die 186

Mercy Death 197

Mercy Killing 205
Chapter Summary 209

■ Ethics Problem 212

Contents vii

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Views of the Major Ethical Theories on Allowing Someone to
Die, Mercy Death, and Mercy Killing 212  •  Critical Thinking
Questions 212  •  Notes  213

Chapter 11 Abortion 214
Learning objectives 214

introduction to the abortion issue 214

When does human Life Begin? 217

arguments against abortion 219

arguments for abortion 222

The More Moderate Positions on abortion 226
Chapter Summary 230

■ Ethics Problem 232
Views of the Major Ethical Theories on Abortion 232  •  Critical
Thinking Questions 233  •  Notes 233

Chapter 12 Lying, Cheating, Breaking Promises, and Stealing 234
Learning objectives 234

definition of Key Terms 235

nonconsequentialist and consequentialist Views 235

Lying 237

cheating 244

Breaking Promises 247

Stealing 252
Chapter Summary 256

■ Ethics Problem 258
Views of the Major Ethical Theories on Lying, Cheating,
Breaking Promises, and Stealing 259  •  Critical Thinking
Questions 259  •  Notes 259

Chapter 13 Morality, Marriage, and Human Sexuality 260
Learning objectives 260

Major aspects of human Sexuality 260

The Meaning and Purposes of human Sexuality 261

Premarital Sex 264

Sex in Marriage-Type relationships (including nonlegal) 268

Masturbation 275

Pornography 275

Prostitution 277

Sexual Perversion or “Unnatural” Sexual activity 278
Chapter Summary 280

■ Ethics Problem 283
Views of the Major Ethical Theories on Morality,
Marriage, and Human Sexuality 283  •  Critical
Thinking Questions 284  •  Notes 284

viii Contents

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Chapter 14 Bioethics—Ethical Issues in Medicine 285
Learning objectives 285

What is Bioethics? 285

health care Professionals and Patients and Their Families—
rights and obligations 286

Truth Telling and informed consent 289

intercultural Bioethics 293

confidentiality 293

Guilt and innocence in Treating Patients 294

ethical issues in Medicine 295

Stem cell research 299
Chapter Summary 303

■ Ethics Problem 309
Views of the Major Ethical Theories on
Bioethical Issues 309  •  Critical Thinking
Questions 309  •  Notes 309

Chapter 15 Business and Media Ethics 311
Learning objectives 311

introduction 311

rights and obligations in Business 312

Two Ways of approaching rights and obligations
in Business 313

The Moderate Position 314

Justice, Truth Telling, and honesty in Business 315

ethical issues in Business 316

Sexual harassment 321

The new Global economy and the international Business
Scene 324

Media ethics 325

corporate Greed—enron 328
Chapter Summary 334

■ Ethics Problem 338
Views of the Major Ethical Theories on Business and
Media Ethics 338  •  Notes 338

Chapter 16 Environmental Ethics 340
Learning objectives 340

definition of Key Terms 340

nature and Morality 341

environmental ethical issues 341

our attitude Toward nature and What Lies Behind it 343

arguments for Use and exploitation of the natural
environment 345

Contents ix

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arguments against the Use and exploitation of nature 347

Moderate Position 348

criteria for animal rights 349

Ways of dealing with animal rights 350

Use of animals for Food 351

Use of animals for experimentation 352

Killing animals for Sport 353

Protection of endangered Species 355

non-Western Perspectives on environmental issues 355

conclusion 359
Chapter Summary 361

■ Ethics Problem 364
Views of the Major Ethical Theories on Environmental
Ethics 365  •  Critical Thinking Questions 365  • 
Notes 365

Appendices 367

Introduction 367

Appendix I: Applying Humanitarian Ethics to the Moral Problems of the Taking
of Human Life 368

Appendix II: Applying Humanitarian Ethics to the Moral Problems of Allowing
Someone to Die, Mercy Death, and Mercy Killing 377

Appendix III: Applying Humanitarian Ethics to the Moral Problems
of Abortion 384

Appendix IV: Applying Humanitarian Ethics to the Moral Problems of Lying,
Cheating, Breaking Promises, and Stealing 393

Appendix V: Applying Humanitarian Ethics to the Moral Problems of Human
Sexuality 400

Appendix VI: Applying Humanitarian Ethics to Moral Problems in Medicine
(Bioethics) 405

Appendix VII: Applying Humanitarian Ethics to Moral Problems in Business
(Business and Media Ethics) 411

Appendix VIII: Applying Humanitarian Ethics to Environmental Ethics 417

Supplementary Reading 421

Glossary 431

Index 438

x Contents

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The fundamental issues in today’s rapidly changing and globally expanding world are
ethical. Leadership in such a world demands courage, commitment, character, and
good ethical reasoning skills to address these challenges head on. Accordingly, the
importance of teaching ethics in higher education has never been greater. With this
updated eleventh edition of Ethics: Theory and Practice, I wish to acknowledge the
significant contributions made by all those involved in the teaching of ethics courses
who engage students with these core issues of our time.

In this edition, I have been careful to keep the overall structure of the text and
to preserve the many positive features of this book that instructors have adapted
for use in their courses. Some of this material has been revised and updated and I
expect to continue to make the text more inclusive and relevant. Some of the new
material in this edition includes over 20 new exercises and ethics problems such
as the trolley problem and moral issues dealing with bullying, cheating, sexual
relations between humans and animals, human experimentation, euthanasia in the
wake of Hurricane Katrina, rationalizations in business, and selling body parts on
Craigslist. Many of these problems involve Internet searches as part of student

Extensive editing was also done to update the language used in earlier editions
of this text. Professor Thiroux wrote liberally in the first person and although this
style was pleasing to many readers, comments like “I feel,” “I believe,” and “I agree”
presented a distraction for others. Moreover, these comments gave a bias to the text.
After all, the point of the text is to comprehensively survey the ethical landscape,
clarify issues and problems, and lay out arguments on all sides in order that students
may draw their own conclusions. And, since there are now two authors, the continued
use of the first person was needlessly confusing and has been removed from the first
sixteen chapters.

A decision was made to leave the use of the first person in the eight appendices:
“Applying Humanitarian Ethics to Moral Problems.” The Theory of Humanitarian Eth-
ics was one of Jacques Thiroux’s key contributions to the field of ethics and to this
text. It also represents his attempt to work out and apply a philosophy of life. As such,
these appendices represent the views of Thiroux and his use of the personal pronoun
is usually accompanied by a justification for his position. Furthermore, because he is
working out a philosophy of life, the frequent use of the personal pronoun gives the
reader insight into “how” Thiroux is approaching a problem and “how” he is thinking
about important issues which is different than “what” he is thinking.

I express my thanks to all the professors and students who for over 30 years have
used Jacques Thiroux’s text. It meant a great deal to Jacques that you found this text
usable and useful in teaching a topic of such importance. It was a privilege, for me,
to be asked aboard as a coauthor for the ninth edition and I know Jacques was very
pleased with the many new ideas I brought to that edition. I hope to continue Profes-
sor Thiroux’s legacy with many new editions.

The updated 11th edition of Ethics: Theory and Practice is focused on enhancing
the student learning experience. New features to support student learning include:

• Revised learning objectives placed at the beginning of each chapter.
• Topically appropriate Critical Thinking Questions are found at the end of each



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• Statistics, dates and other facts updated throughout the text.
• Additional materials were added dealing with healthcare, pornography, and the

• Outdated materials were removed.


I would like to thank my editors, Ashley Dodge and Carly Czech. In addition, thanks to
Peter Kanetis, Thomas Kulanjiyil, Johnson Lawrence, Joshua Price, and John Santiago,
my colleagues at the College of DuPage, and all of the other reviewers who have helped
by suggesting changes and appropriate updates. I also wish to extend appreciation to
the following students for their insightful questions and suggestions: Ryan A. Palmore,
Ivy Tech Community College, Valparaiso, Indiana; Tamara Smith, Canadian University
College; Seneca Brookins, Teresa Cruz, Evgenia Diachenko, Meray Estephan, Christine
Harman, Laura Kanter, Kayla Lowry, Angela Pumo, Kimberly Rodgers and Cortney
Sigilai, DePaul University, Chicago, Illinois. Special thanks to Karyin Boulom for help-
ing me with the final copy.

Ethics continues to be one of the more important human endeavors. We must
continue debating the issues, allowing for dissent and using the best ethical reasoning
we can muster, to deal with the difficult problems of the twenty-first century.

Keith W. Krasemann
Professor of Philosophy

and Religious Studies

College of DuPage

xii Preface

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Learning Objectives

• Define philosophy and explain its relationship with ethics.
• Recognize the difference between ethics and morality based on the definitions of important

key terms related to them.

• Explain the various approaches to the study of morality.
• Interpret the meaning of morality by differentiating it with the concepts of aesthetics, nonmoral

behavior, and manners.

• Describe how morality applies to human beings based on its four important aspects.
• Scrutinize the various theories that attempt to account for the origination of morality.
• Distinguish between morality and the law by examining some real life examples.
• Distinguish between morality and religion.
• Probe the arguments on why human beings should be moral.

Morality claims our lives. It makes claims upon each of us that are stronger than the claims of law
and take priority over self-interest. As human beings living in the world, we have basic duties and
obligations. There are certain things we must do and certain things we must not do. In other words,
there is an ethical dimension of human existence. As human beings, we experience life in a world of
good and evil and understand certain kinds of actions in terms of right and wrong. The very structure
of human existence dictates that we must make choices. Ethics helps us use our freedom responsibly
and understand who we are. And, ethics gives direction in our struggle to answer the fundamental
questions that ask how we should live our lives and how we can make right choices.

What is PhilosoPhy and Ethics’ RElationshiP to it?

Philosophy literally means love of wisdom, from the Greek words philia meaning love or friendship
and sophia meaning wisdom. The following three areas of philosophy will be our major concern in
this book: epistemology (the study of knowledge), metaphysics (the study of the nature of reality),
and ethics (the study of morality). Aesthetics (the study of values in art or beauty) and logic (the study
of argument and the principles of correct reasoning) are two additional areas of philosophy that
constitute its five major branches.

epistemology deals with the following questions: What is knowledge? What are truth and
falsity, and to what do they apply? What is required for someone to actually know something? What is

Chapter 1

The Nature of Morality

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2 Chapter 1 • The Nature of Morality

the nature of perception, and how reliable is it? What’s the difference between knowl-
edge and belief? Is there anything such as “certain knowledge”?

Metaphysics is the study of the nature of reality, asking the following questions:
What is the nature of reality and of the things that exist? Specifically, such questions as
the following are asked: Is there really cause and effect and, if so, how does it work?
What is the nature of the physical world, and is there anything other than the physical,
such as the mental or spiritual? What is the nature of human beings? Is there freedom
in reality, or is everything predetermined?

ethics, our main concern, deals with what is right or wrong in human behavior
and conduct. It asks such questions as what constitutes any person or action being
good, bad, right, or wrong and how do we know (epistemology)? What part does self-
interest or the interests of others play in the making of moral decisions and judgments?
What theories of conduct are valid or invalid and why? Should we use principles or
rules or laws as the basis for our choices, or should we let each situation decide our
morality? Are killing, lying, cheating, stealing, and certain kinds of sexual acts right or
wrong, and why or why not?

As you can see, the above three areas of philosophy are related and at times
overlap, but each one is worthy of concentrated study in itself. The major concern in
this book, as its title suggests, is ethics, and before going any further, it is important to
define some key terms used in any discussion of ethics or morality.

dEfinition of KEy tERms

Ethical, moral, Unethical, immoral

In ordinary language, we frequently use the words ethical and moral (and unethical
and immoral) interchangeably; that is, we speak of the ethical or moral person or act.
On the other hand, we speak of codes of ethics, but only infrequently do we mention
codes of morality. Some reserve the terms moral and immoral only for the realm of
sexuality and use the words ethical and unethical when discussing how the business
and professional communities should behave toward their members or toward the
public. More commonly, however, we use none of these words as often as we use the
terms good, bad, right, and wrong. What do all of these words mean, and what are
the relationships among them?

Ethics comes from the Greek ethos, meaning character. Morality comes from
the Latin moralis, meaning customs or manners. Ethics, then, seems to pertain to the
individual character of a person or persons, whereas morality seems to point to the
relationships between human beings. Nevertheless, in ordinary language, whether we
call a person ethical or moral, or an act unethical or immoral, doesn’t really make any
significant difference. In philosophy, however, the term ethics is also used to refer to
a specific area of study: the area of morality, which concentrates on human conduct
and human values.

When we speak of people as being moral or ethical, we usually mean that they
are good people, and when we speak of them as being immoral or unethical, we mean
that they are bad people. When we refer to certain human actions as being moral,
ethical, immoral, and unethical, we mean that they are right or wrong. The simplicity
of these definitions, however, ends here, for how do we define a right or wrong ac-
tion or a good or bad person? What are the human standards by which such decisions
can be made? These are the more difficult questions that make up the greater part of
the study of morality, and they will be discussed in more detail in later chapters. The
important thing to remember here is that moral, ethical, immoral, and unethical

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Chapter 1 • The Nature of Morality 3

essentially mean good, right, bad, and wrong, often depending upon whether one is
referring to people themselves or to their actions.

chaRactERistics of Good, Bad, RiGht, WRonG, haPPinEss, oR PlEasURE. It seems
to be an empirical fact that whatever human beings consider to be good involves
happiness and pleasure in some way, and whatever they consider to be bad involves
unhappiness and pain in some way. This view of what is good has traditionally been
called “hedonism.” As long as the widest range of interpretation is given to these
words (from simple sensual pleasures to intellectual or spiritual pleasures and from
sensual pain to deep emotional unhappiness), it is difficult to deny that whatever is
good involves at least some pleasure or happiness, and whatever is bad involves some
pain or unhappiness.

One element involved in the achievement of happiness is the necessity of taking
the long-range rather than the short-range view. People may undergo some pain or
unhappiness in order to attain some pleasure or happiness in the long run. For ex-
ample, we will put up with the pain of having our teeth drilled in order to keep our
teeth and gums healthy so that we may enjoy eating and the general good health that
results from having teeth that are well maintained. Similarly, people may do very dif-
ficult and even painful work for two days in order to earn money that will bring them
pleasure and happiness for a week or two.

Furthermore, the term good should be defined in the context of human experi-
ence and human relationships rather than in an abstract sense only. For example,
knowledge and power in themselves are not good unless a human being derives some
satisfaction from them or unless they contribute in some way to moral and meaningful
human relationships. They are otherwise nonmoral.

What about actions that will bring a person some good but will cause pain to
another, such as those acts of a sadist who gains pleasure from violently mistreating
another human being? Our original statement was that everything that is good will
bring some person satisfaction, pleasure, or happiness of some kind, but this state-
ment does not necessarily work in the reverse—that everything that brings someone
satisfaction is necessarily good. There certainly are “malicious pleasures.”

ExcEllEncE. William Frankena (1908–1994) states that whatever is good will also
probably involve “some kind or degree of excellence.”1 He goes on to say that “what
is bad in itself is so because of the presence of either pain or unhappiness or of some
kind of defect or lack of excellence.”2 Excellence is an important addition to pleasure
or satisfaction in that it makes “experiences or activities better or worse than they
would otherwise be.”3 For example, the enjoyment or satisfaction gained from hear-
ing a concert, seeing a fine movie, or reading a good book is due, to a great extent, to
the excellence of the creators and presenters of these events (composers, performers,
directors, actors, and writers). Another and perhaps more profound example of the
importance of excellence is that if one gains satisfaction or pleasure from witnessing
a well-conducted court case and from seeing and hearing the judge and the lawyers
perform their duties well, that satisfaction will be deepened if the judge and the law-
yers are also excellent people, that is, if they are kind, fair, and compassionate human
beings in addition to being clever and able.

Whatever is good, then, will probably contain some pleasure, happiness, and
excellence, whereas whatever is bad will be characterized by their opposites: pain,
unhappiness, and lack of excellence. The above claims only indicate that there will
probably be some of these elements present. For example, a good person performing
a right action might not be particularly happy and might even find what he or she is

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4 Chapter 1 • The Nature of Morality

doing painful; nonetheless, the recipients of the right action might be made happy by
it and the right action might also involve excellence.

haRmony and cREativity. There are two other attributes of “good” and “right” that
may add to our definition; they are harmony and creativity on the “good” side and
discord, or disharmony, and lack of creativity on the “bad” side. If an action is creative
or can aid human beings in becoming creative and, at the same time, help to bring
about a harmonious integration of as many human beings as possible, then we can
say it is a right action. If an action has the opposite effect, then we can say that it is a
wrong action.

For example, if a person or a group of people can end a war between two nations
and create an honorable and lasting peace, then a right or good action has been per-
formed. It can allow members of both nations to be creative rather than destructive and
can create harmony between both sides and within each nation. On the other hand,
causing or starting a war between two nations will have just the opposite effect. Lester
A. Kirkendall (1904–1991) stresses these points and also adds to the earlier discussion
about the necessity of placing primary emphasis on what is good or excellent in human
experience and relationships:

Whenever a decision or a choice is to be made concerning behavior, the
moral decision will be the one which works toward the creation of trust,
confidence, and integrity in relationships. It should increase the capacity
of individuals to cooperate, and enhance the sense of self-respect in the
individual. Acts which create distrust, suspicion, and misunderstanding,
which build barriers and destroy integrity are immoral. They decrease the
individual’s sense of self-respect and rather than producing a capacity to
work together they separate people and break down the capacity for com-

Two other terms that we should define are amoral and nonmoral.


Amoral means having …

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