Final exam



The yowng Liang Qichao (1873-1929) was closely associated with tbe reformer
Kang Yowwei (L858-1927). In 1898, when Kang’s pdtron, the Guangxw em-
peror, was owsted by the empress dowager, Kang and Liang lled to lapan. Tbere
Liang became a prolific’journalist. His writings, smwggled back into Cbina, in-
troduced Chinese readers to the world of ideas then cwrrent owtside Cbina.

In 1903 Liang traueled to North America, spending two months in Canada
and fiue in the United States. Liang looked at American society witb one question
foremost in his mind: In what ways might America prouide models for China in
its qwest to become strong and modern? Although in fauor of democratic insti-
twtions, he did not see the American repwblican system as appropriate to Cbina.
He was particularly discowraged by the ways Cbinese bad organized tbemselues
in Chinatowns in America. In the following excerpts from his account of his trip,
Liang discwsses both wbat he saw and what he read in the IJ.5. press.


Uncivilized people live underground, half-
civilized people live on the surface, and civilized
people live above the ground. Those who live
on surface usually live in one- or fwo-story
houses. . . . Some houses in Beijing have en-
trances going down several stone steps, aimost
as if going underground. In New York, buildings
of ten to twenfy stories are not rare, and the tall-
est reaches thirty-three stories. This can truly be
called above the ground. But ordinary residential
buildings in big cities in America also have one
or two basements, and so are both above and be-
low ground.

Everywhere in New York the eye conr:.”:=
what look like pigeon coops, spidenvebi arc:::-
tipedes; in fact these are houses, eiecrric s-:s- .:i
trolley cars.

New York’s Central Park exrec’is =o::n

Street to 123d Street [in fact, 5fth to i 1 -,th], rvith
an area about equal to the Inreraanonal Settle-
ment and French Concession rn Shanghai. Espe-
cially on days of rest it is crorv,jed rvith carriages
and people jostling together. The park is in the
middle of the city; if it s-ere changed into a com-
mercial area, the land rvould sell for three or four
times the annual reyenue of the Chinese govern-
ment. From the Chinese point of view this may be
called throwing awal- money on useless land and


are Italians, with some Germans’ Chinese.’

i.*rl, the ieath rate was 35 per-thousand’ a:-
-as’;rrthousand for children under five’ In-co:”-

ou.rult death rate for New York

s’: ‘
iZ-p.t irr””sand, so the hardship of these


;;.;i” can be imagined’ These rates’ it is said’ a:’
;;;; in. i”.r. oi air and light where thev livt
l.torft.. statistician says there are 37’000 rente;

aDartments in New York’ in whlch o r:
;506:b;,;;.oft. u”” Such dwellings are not onl’
;;.rtJfribrt rtto harmful to moralitv’ Accoro
;;; statistician again, of the 483-peopfe livins
i;;”” building on a certain street in New York’ ir’
;;;;;i0, i.opl’ committed crimes’ so great i’
the influence of these conditions'”—‘iCri*t””

mansions reek of wine and -meat’
*nif” “”

ifr” road lie frozenbones’ Rich and

but a foot apart; sorrows too hard to
relate'” So

go., Do Fu;s poem [Tang dynasty]’ I. have

nessed such things myseHln New York’

;;;;;’;;;rics oi thesocialists, 70 percent of the

“”?tt. “”rJ.ri*tulth
of America is in the hands

.Jibo,ooo rich people, and the remaining
30 per-

;;;;;i””st to-zs”8ob,o00 poor’ Thus the rich
p..pi”i” A”merica are truly riih’ and this so-called
*”Atny class constitutes no more than one
i”*fr”irat.ath of the population’ Tt can be com-

on. hu”diti dollars being divided

u*org 400 people, with one person gettmg

.”ir’lhir*;”d tnt remaining thirtv dollars be-

mong399 people’ each settins a little

oul, ,.u.rr..r,t,’ Ho* ‘ttuttg”‘
how bizarre! This

kind of phenomenon is seen in all civilized

or”U.”larly in big cities’ [but]

New York

,”JLi”a”” u” iht -olt “oto’ious’
The unequal

;;;”;;;;” of wealth has reached this extreme’ I
look at the slums of New York and

think with a

mr, socialism cannot be avoided’


This afternoon I went to visit Morgan’

frrt f”.” .rfled the king of trusts- and.the Napo-
i”o” of the business world’ I had no business


;;;”tt with him, but was led by curiosity to meet

:his man whose magic:- :’
.merica. All his [ife h. -:’
.rnd never called on or:-.. -‘-

:rime ministers, if the. -.-
:ions’ financial marter.. – :
Jo not expect him ro ..-:
rhat his appointmenrs -.:=
minutes each. Even er::.:
lems can be decided i:’ :- ‘
so far without error’ I-: ‘ ::
rruly unrivaled. I n ro:. -. .
pressing my wish to ri- ‘.::i
sation. At the aPPojrt:.-:-:
Street office to visit hir-.


itors in his receivinl: :–
him one by onel rro o]-.: : i.-

I had nothing to ask ‘: – :
waste his precious tin:.. . ”
him for only three rriri’- l:’.
advice: The outcomq : ::
preparations made -l – .::
started, its success o: l.’, ..
and can no longer be i-:.:..
for his success in life. :’ -: –


In New York Cin .rt :-.
monster was created ; .-. – -. :
ster was born in Ner’. )
spread to all of rhe t”‘ :.:
over rhe whole worl-. -.
whose power far er-.: j.
Great or NaPoleon. i: ::-:
of the twentieth-cenr’.::” ;
wanted to find out i:. :–
York, I finally have th. ;

The origins of the t:-..:
Trust of 1882, which r” -:.

IJohn D.] Rockefeller. ^:-
petroleum king. Thei -:-
Trust was formed, in I ”:
I 887 the Sugar Refin::’: I
conspicuous and sr.t::-::
forth the whole cou::.’

r:: all agree that for a busY

– .” ‘ – : – –‘1” i -tPpropriate parks is harm-
– – :-. ::- ::rd morais’ Now that I have

– : -: :’-‘ lhe Park leaves me muddled in

s. elevated trains’ subwaY- ‘ *-‘ >tte€tCdfl
– :. tli carriages, automobiles’ and bicycles

– – :’.:-;ia,r., “iout
and below’ banging and-

– , . ro left and right, rumbling and r.inging in
, ..-, ,..”i’L.hind. Th’e mind is confused and the
. ,.-‘i.-tiut.n. People say that those who live in
f ..’. f-o.k for a long time must have sharper eyes

p.oplt or else they would have to

.,-rr-,d u, intersections all day, not daring
to take a



New York is the most prosperous city
in the

-“tia, “”J
,tro tt'” bleakest’ Let me briefly de-

scribe New York’s darker side’

A.rti-Ori.ntal agitators criticize the Chinese

ull for their

From what I have

;;ii; York, the Chinese are not the dirti-

jr-t”.*s where Italians and Jews live’ in the
summer old women and young wivel’

boys and

-lritlirf.” trools and sit outside their doors’ clog-
Xi”n’r-f-r. Their clothing is shabby’

their ap-

il;?;;;. ;;.t.h.d’ These areas are not accessible
f.lrir..r.u, and even horse-drawn carriages sel-
Jo* go there. Tourists are always coming to see

,.o.. ih.y live. From the outside there is building

-.,.., ,nirir,oried building, but inside
each build-

.. . ior.rm of families u” I”ttutttt’ Over half of

…,,..”itfrave no daylight or ventilation’ and
g., .,ghr. burn day and night’ Wh:1 you enter’

ih. i*,i smell assaults your nose’ Altogether’ in
i… f orf about 230,000 people live in such con-

According to statistics for 1888′ on Houston

and Mulberrv streets (where most of
the people


. —.1i.i). -ninese. ar::: :er rhousand, an:
.- *rder five. In cor:.-
,:: :,,]I eW York g-:.
::.:ip of these poc-
:: – : Lc5, lt tS Sald. a:.
–: t’here they lir,;
:: :–i -37,000 rente ;

-n rvhich o,.:
– .’. .–::rgS afe not on-,.
: :::orality. Accorc_
. .: -)) people ll-tn.
::::: ln ew York. t.-

– –:- -, _ — 1111tr5. JO great .:

).1 ,:qan. Morgan
:’ ;nd rhe Napo-
:: :lo business ro
::::osiw to meer

:his man whose magical power is the greatest in
-merica. All his life he has only receiied guesrs
:nd never called on others. Even presidents and
:rime ministers, if they need his h.lp ln their na_
:ions’ financial matters, come to consult him and
lo not expect him to visit them. I was also told
:hat his appointments are limited to one to five
ninutes each. Even extremely important prob_
.ems can be decided in this b.i.fesispan ofii_.,
so far without error. His energy urrd’r.u-.r, n..
:ruly unrivaled. I wrote a lettei’two days ago ex_
pressing my wish to request a five_minuie conver_
sation. At the appointed time, I went to his .fi/all
Street office to visit him. There were scores of vis_
rrors in his receiving room, who were led to see
nrm one by one; no one exceeded five minutes. As
I had nothing to ask of him and did not wanr to
ri-aste his precious time, I went in and talked with
him for only three minutes. He gave -. ” *ora ofadvice: The outcome of any u.Irrr.rr. depends on
preparations made ahead of rime; once it is
started, its success or failure is alreadr decided
and can no longer be altered. This is the sole motto
for his success in life, and I was deeply impressed.


In New York City at the turn of the century, a
monster was created called the ,.trust.,, This mon_
ster was born in New york, but its power had
spread to all of the United States and is speeding
over the whole world. In essence, this rionster,
rvhose power far exceeds that of Alexander the
Great or Napoleon, is the one and only sovereign
of the twentieth-century world. Fo. years I have
u,anted to find out its true nature; now in New
York, I finally have rhe opporrunity. . . .

The origins of the trusican be traced to the Oil
Trust of 1882, which was the personal creation of
IJohn D.] Rockefeller, kno*r, to the worid as the
petroleum king. Then in 1gg3, the Cotton Oil
flyl yur formed, in 1886 the Bread Trust, and in
1887 the Sugar Refining Trust. Their profiis were
conspicuous and startled all the *o.ld. Thence_
forth the whole counrry became ..rr.J ,bo.r,

Liang euichao on His Trip to America / 337
trusts, until today almost g0 percent of the capital
of the entire United States is under the control of
trusts. The United is the premier cap_
italist nation in the world, and American capital
amounts ro almosr half that of the entire world.
Thus somewhat less than half of the world,s total
capitai is now in the hands of this tiny number of
trust barons. Alasl How strange! How amazing!

In sum, the trust is the darling of the twentieth
century, and certainly cannor be destroyed by hu_
man effort, as is recogn rzed by all oi even the
slightest learning. From now on, domestic trusts
will grow into international trusts, and the nation
that will be most severely victimized will surely be
China. It is clear that we cannor look at this prob_
lem as if observrng a fire from the opposiie shore.


Americans have an unofficial form of punishment
known as “lynching,,with which to treaiblacks.
Such a phenomenon is unimaginable among civi_
Iized countries. Ir started wit”h u fur-“, ,ir_.a
Lvnch. Because he had been offended by a black,
he suspended him from a tree to u,ait for the po_
lice officers ro arrir-e. bur rhe black man aiea Ue_
fore thev came. So his name has been used for this
ever since. Recentlr-the common pracrice is burn_
ing people to dertL. fhene’er ,’b,tr.-k i”. .o-_
mitted an offense a mob will be direcrh-garhered
and burn him without going through ihl .ou.rr.

Had I only been told about this and nor

America myself I wouid nor have t,elieled that
such cruel and inhuman acts could b,e performed
in broad daylight in the twentieth cenrun.. During
the ten months I was in America I counred no less
than ten-odd accounts of this srrange business in
the newspapers. At first I shocf,ed, but have
become accustomed to reading ,boilt it urrd ,ro
longer consider it strange. Checking the statistics
on it, there have been an average o{tSl such pri_
vate punishments each year since 1g84. Hah!
7hen Russia killed a hundred and some score
Jews, the whole world considered it savage. But I
do not know how to decide which i, -o.ri Amer_
ica or Russia.


338 I The Eaily Tottentietb Century

To be sure there is something despicable about
the behavior of blacks. They would die nine times
over without regret if they could possess a white
woman’s flesh. They often rape them at night in
the forest and then kill them in order to silence
them. Nine out of ten lynchings are for this, and it
is certainl.v something to be angry about. Still,
rvhv does the government allow wanton lynch-
ings to go unpunished even though there is a
judiciar,v? The reason is none other than precon-
ceived opinions about race. The American Decla-
rarion of Independence says that people are all
born free and equal. Are blacks alone not people?
Alas, I now understand what it is that is called
“civilization” these days!


The various university libraries I have seen do not
have people who retrieve books [from the stacks],
but let students go and get them on their own. I
was amazed. At the University of Chicago, I asked
the head of the library whether or not books were
lost this way. He answered that about two hun-
dred volumes were lost every year, but hiring sev-
eral people to supervise the books would cost
more than this small number of books and, fur-
ther, would inconvenience the students. So it is
not done. In general, books are lost mostly during
the two weeks before examinations because stu-
dents steal them to prepare for examinations, and
many of them are afterwards returned. In this can
be seen the general level of public morality. Even
a small thing like this is something Orientals could
not come close to learning to do in a hundred


From s.hat has been discussed above, the weak-
nesses of the Chinese people can be listed as fol-

1. Our character is that of clansmen rather
than citizens. Chinese social organizationis based

on family and clan as the unit rather than on the
individual, what is called “regulating one’s familr
before ruling the country.” . . . In my opinion-
though the power of self-government of the An–
ans of the’West was developed earlier, our Chi-
nese system of local self-government was just as
good. ‘S[hy is it that they could form a nation-
state and we could not? The answer is that what
they developed was the city system of self-
government, while we developed a clan system of
self-government. . . . That Chinese can be clans-
men but cannot be citizens, I came to believe more
strongly after traveling in North America. . . .


have a village mentality and not a na-
tional mentality. I heard Roosevelt’s speech to the
effect that the most urgent task for the American
people is to get rid of the village mentality, bv
which he meant people’s feelings of loyalry to
their own town and state. From the point of vierr
of history, however, America has been successfi:l
in exercising a republican form of government
precisely because this local sentiment was there at
the start, and so it cannot be completely faulted.
But developed to excess it becomes an obstacle to
nation building. . . . We Chinese have developed
it too far. How could it be just the San Francisco
Chinese? It is true everywhere at home, too. . . .

3. ‘We can accept only despotism and cannot
enjoy freedom. . . .’S7hen I look at all the societies
of the world, none is so disorderly as the Chinese
communify in San Francisco.’!flhy? The answer is
freedom. The character of the Chinese in China is
not superior to those of San Francisco, but at
home they are governed by officials and restrained
by fathers and elder brothers. The situation ofthe
Chinese of Southeast Asia would seem different
from those in China; but England, Holland, and
France rule them harshly, ordering the breakup of
assemblies of more than ten people, and taking
away all freedoms. This is even more severe than
inside China, and so they are docile. It is those
who live in North America and Australia who en-
joy the same degree of freedom under law as West-
erners. In towns where there are few of them, they
cannot gather into a force and their defects are
not so apparent. But in San Francisco, which leads

the list of the free cities
Chinese living in the s
what the situation is lih

ffith such countr)- rr
practice the election s.rrsr
I have not observed ‘
home to be superior tod
the contrary, I find rhi
inferior to those in San E
are some Chinese super
cisco, it is just a small r
of qualification for enil
same. . , ,

Now, freedom, cool
licanism mean goverotr
the overwhelming mafo
are like [those in San I
adopt a democratic snsll
would be nothing less d
suicide. Freedom, consd
canism would be like ha
furs in summer; it is nc
ful, they are just not sr
not be bedazzledby.ry
not yearn for beautiful
word, the Chinese peol
governed autocraticall;
dom. I pray and yearn, I
try can have a Gual
Lycurgus, a Cromwell i
harsh rule, and with in
temper our countrFrc[
fifty years. After that wt
of Rousseau and tell d

4. ‘We lack lofry obia
damental weakness of r
tives of Europeans and /
same, but in my estimt
are their love of beauty,t
and the idea of the futur
three are at the root ofd

*’ Guanzi and Shang Yangr
the frrst millennium 8.c., rtil
power of the ruler in an autrc

the list of the free cities with the largest group ofChinese living in the. same place, we hav. ,eenwh-at the siruation is like. . . :
-‘ rrw “avL

such counrrv

p., ;; ;;;: ffi lfi’.*, r :,+;,,[ ff ;:*ff:I have not observed ,f.r. .f,urr.*;;ia;l;1r. ,,
l^1T^:.- l. sugeliol ro those *a;; F;;i,.”. o”Lrre contrary, I find their level of civllization farinferior to those in San Franciscr. . :.;;;tirn..”
Lt toT: Chinese superiomo ,t or. in irn frrr_crsco, ir is just a smali matter of d”gr..; ii.l, rr.tof qualification for .rr;oy,.,g il;t;f;i,i, ,r,.same. . . .

Now, freedom. constitutionalism, and repub_licanjsm mean government by rhe majority, butthe overwhelming maioriry #rfr. Cfrir,”l. r.o,f.are like [those in su” er””.ir.oj.”if r”‘. *… ,oadopt a democratic system of gou.rnrn.rrt ro*, it*gll9 be nothing I”i, rhrr-.irnrnjr,l”*’rrr,rrrr
su jcide. Freedom, consti rutiona I ir*, r rr? repu bli_canism would be tike h”.p.;;;;;;’r;;;r,…,
Ir:t i” summer; it is not that they are not beauti_ful,1h;f are just not suitable for us. $7e should
::: bt bedazzled or:Tgr, glitter now; we shourdnor yearn for beautiful dr-.rms. ,; ;;; it in aword, rhe Chinese people

“;-;;;;J; only begoverned il; .r””1,, lil;Jr rr..dom. I pray and y”^r”,’i;;;;;#il;i”, .rr”try can have a Guanii,
” s(r”*


Lycurgus, a Cromwel.l ,il. ,.;;;’:, ;;?.riharsh rule, and wirl
remper or. .orrrr.-,i11o1

and fire to- forge and
nr,y y.,,* ail#:ffiT: .* il..”,.r; jTilt.iJilof Rousseau and tell ,rr._ lilrrr’rir.’il.o, ,rWashington.
, a. Wg lack lofty objectives. . . . This is the fun_damenral .i

“, c-rra.;.’ ::.’i;: .n”tives of Europeans ,”a e*.rr.r.rrlr.
“”, if ,fr.same, but in my estir

,,.. d.;l;; # ffiIl:::T jff ,T.”:.1T,r#::::
and rhe idea o[ rhe future in rheir religion. Thesethree are at rhe roor or rr_,. J”Joo;;il;;?;.rr_

. “. Cuanzi and Shane yang were both polirical reformers ofthe firsr millennium s.”c.- .o
powe r o f ,h ; ;;i;;’;; ; ; J il:I [: T:,r.L;,[.:,:,j il ;:


Liang e.uichao on His Trip to Attte,::: r ::
ern spiritual civilization, and arewhar n,. – _. -_ =_Iackmost….

There are many other ways in which ii. – .–nese characrer is inferior to that of V,esre::_:,:some happened to impress me so that I recorc.:them, but others I have forgotten. Let me nox. .:s;sey.eral that I noted down, in no particular orc;::Westerners work only etsh;f;;;, ;;'”, , every Sundav. Chinese *or., * op;.,;”:
seven in the.morning to eleven or nr.e… .at niglr, bur rhough shopk..p”ers,,i.*.,”,fl.r. . .

aav in.and day out, without*rr, if,r.r rrlf f ir,to ger as rich as the rrX/estern.r, i;;’;rh;’r,o..

,’.:,:r comparabt” ,o’ir,”, ,.quantrty. Why? In any kind of work ,i.-., o.r,thing is to be fatigued.’ff peopte *”* ,ii’ Or, . . .year they are bound.._Ui U.r.a; ;;;;;; ,..bored

_they become,t.a, urrJ o,ij.H; rr’.-1,…everything goes to wasre. Resting i, .Jr.rri”f ,.human life. That the Chineseiiliri;;;# *rr,be due to rheir lack of rest.
American schools average only 140 da’s ,-,;-study a year, and five or ,;*”ho.rr, .u.r; Oll.


for the same reason u, b.for., r.i.”*'”‘, :i-‘.. i-:
are superior to those of th” ihir.r..

A small Chinese ,hop oft*’.;;i;,. ._ _-
more than a dozen people. r, ;w;; . _ _ .
l’^,y :n:* are only one or two emplo..:__. ,_ _

De esrlmated that one of them:.=.-,_= _
amount of work that it tuk., th..” I – . – – .
is not that the Chinese ,.4;”; ..’ -,_l’ , _simply not intelligenr.
r I o reston Sunday is wonde::- _.r_: – : ._ _ . ,days, one has renewed energ. _ :. -. .

-, ‘_
of spirit depends on this. rh,jc..,.

_. .,. _ 1. . =_

l:id”r. Y.i:.gnoradopr…_,. jr__.,.._;sll*.but we should have a nrnc_:—
days. ‘-.-:– -:-‘-;”:’len

lrVhen more than a hur.,-_ , _._, r ^_^
ered in..;” pI;;;.”.;.. ,,-.i:,’,.. rj,.#i,[quiet. rhere are bound ,o .. ,ou. tlriloi’noir.,
the most frequent is coughing, next come yawn,tng, sneezing, and hlorring” ,lr. ,or..’ fiu.ingspeeches I have tried ro iir”i ,”.Uffi”.ir, *Othese four noises are constant and ceaseless. I have

340 I The EarlY Twentieth CenturY

also listened in’Western lecture halls and theaters;

although thousands of people were there, I heard


,Lrrrd. In Oriental buses and trolleys there
are always spiffoons, and spitters are constantly

making , -irt’ American vehicles seldom have
spittoJ.ts, and even when they do they are hardly

‘When Orientai vehicles are on a iourney of

more than fwo or three hours, more than half of

the passengers doze off. In America, even on a full

dav;s journey, no one tries to sleep’ Thus can be

,..r, ,h. physical differences between Orientals

On the sidewalks on both sides of the streets in

San Francisco (vehicles go in the middle of the
street), spitting and littering are not allowed, and

uiolators are fined five dollars. On New York trol-

1eys, spitting is prohibited and violators are fined

five hundred dollars. Since Chinese are such messy

and filthy citizens, no wonder they are despised’
‘$0hen’W’esterners walk, their bodies are erect

and their heads up.’We Chinese bow at one com-

mand, stoop at a second, and prostrate ourselves

at a third. The comparison should make us

‘$7hen’W’esterners walk their steps are always
hurried; one look and you know that the city is

full of people with business to do, as though they

.”n.oig.ieverything done. The Chinese on the
other hlnd *rlk and elegantly, full of
pomp and ritual-they are truly ridiculous’ You

can recognize a Chinese walking toward you o:.

the streeifrom a distance of several hundred fee:’

and not only from his short stature and yellor’

‘W’esterners walk together like a formation o:

geese; Chinese are like scattered ducks'” ‘When’W’esterners speak, if they are addressinS
one person, then they speak so one person can

h.a.iif they are addressing two people, they makt
two people hear; similarly with ten and with hun-

d..dr, thortands, and tens of thousands’ The voi-

ume of their voices is adjusted appropriately’ In

China, if several people sit in a room to talk, ther’

sound like thunder. If thousands are Sathered in a

lecture hall, the [speaker’s] voice is like a mos-

quito. !7hen ‘W’esterners converse, if A has not
dnished, B does not interrupt. 7ith a group of
Chinese, on the other hand, the voices are all dis-

orderly; some famous scholars in Beijing consider

interrupting to be a sign of masterfulness-this is

disorderliness in the extreme. Confucius said’
“‘$Tithout having studied the Book’ of Songs one

cannot speak; without having studied the rites’
o.r” .”.r.rtt behave.” My friend Xu Junmian also
said, “Chinese have not learned to walk and have

not learned to speak.” This is no exaggeration’
Though these ari small matters, they reflect big-
ger things.

Translated by R. Dauid Arkusb and Leo O’ Lee

roots 14’t
China. m
Westeat t
tuentb a
of girk a

bound w
pressed- t
not until
Soon si’a.
is an add
the caus,
make bq
an aborfr

teentb ct
classes a
nese gotr
made to
Britain t
dicts lice
be arreE
against < an articl and et'a Intet piece git duthor.,

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