Forensic Sciences final

NEW JERSEY CITY UNIVERSITY

Department of Professional Security Studies

Spring 2021 Semester / SECU 310 Forensic Investigations

FINAL EXAMINATION (Posted on May 3, 2021)

Listed below are a variety of fifty (50) questions (matching, true/false, and fill in the blank). Please

choose THE BEST answer for each question. Please provide me your completed examination in a

WORD or PDF document by way of email. If there is a problem sending me the answers in that

format, then please email me your answers. THIS IS NOT A GROUP EXAMINATION. Your

responses must be your own and not duplicated or grouped together with any of your classmates.

Failure to comply will result in point deduction and/or failure for the examination.

The due date for submission of this FINAL EXAMINATION will be no later than

Monday, May 10, 2021 for FULL CREDIT.

1. Arches, the least common of the three general patterns, are divided into two distinct groups:

plain arches and tented arches.

a. True

b. False

2. Leaving a mobile device running but placing it in something that will block its communication is

the preferred method for preserving data on a mobile device.
a. True
b. False

3. Fingerprints are a reproduction of friction skin ridges found on the palm side of the fingers and

thumbs.

a. True

b. False

4. The epidermis is the outer layer of the skin, while the dermis is the inner layer of the skin.

a. True

b. False

5. Once a manufacturer chooses a rifling process, the class characteristics of the weapon’s barrel

will remain consistent; each will have the same number of lands and grooves, with the same

approximate width and direction of twist.

a. True

b. False

6. Once the finger touches a surface, perspiration, along with oils that may have been picked up by

touching the hairy portions of the body, is transferred onto that surface, leaving the finger’s

ridge pattern (a fingerprint).

a. True

b. False

7. ACE-V is a six-step process to identify and individualize a fingerprint.

a. True

b. False

8. Fingerprint classification systems are based on knowledge of fingerprint pattern classes.

a. True

b. False

9. All fingerprints are divided into three classes based on their general pattern: loops, arches, and

whorls.

a. True

b. False

10. Mathematically, the probability for the existence of two identical fingerprint patterns in the

world’s population is extremely small.

a. True

b. False

11. The direction of travel of blood striking an object may be discerned because the pointed end of

a bloodstain always faces its direction of travel.

a. True

b. False

12. The individuality of a fingerprint is determined by its general shape or pattern, not by the study

of its ridge characteristics (minutiae points).

a. True

b. False

13. All whorl patterns have type lines and a minimum of two deltas.

a. True

b. False

14. A fingerprint classification system can identify an individual.

a. True

b. False

15. The inner surface of the barrel of a gun leaves its markings on a bullet passing through it.

a. True

b. False

16. Striations are fine lines found on the exterior of the barrel.

a. True

b. False

17. No two rifled barrels will have identical striation markings.

a. True

b. False

18. AFIS aids in classifying and retrieving fingerprints by converting the image of a fingerprint into

digital minutiae that contain data showing ridges at their points of termination (ridge endings)

and their branching into two ridges (bifurcations).

a. True

b. False

19. Once the finger touches a surface, body perspiration and/or oils present on the finger ridges are

transferred to that surface, leaving an impression.

a. True

b. False

20. Prints deposited which are invisible to the eye are commonly referred to as patent fingerprints.

a. True

b. False

21. Complications arise in extracting and evaluating data from mobile devices because of the variety
of ways that different devices store and manage data.

a. True
b. False

22. Regarding computer forensics, visible data is that data which the operating system is aware of.
a. True
b. False

23. Chemically, fire is a type of oxidation, which is the combination of oxygen with other substances

to produce new substances.

a. True

b. False

24. The arson investigator needs to begin examining a fire scene for signs of arson as soon as the

fire has been extinguished.

a. True

b. False

25. At the suspected point of origin of a fire, ash, and soot, along with porous materials which may

contain excess accelerant, should be collected, and stored in paper bags.

a. True

b. False

26. The basic principles underlying the use of fingerprints in criminal investigations are that:

a. A fingerprint is an individual characteristic because no two fingers have yet been found to

possess identical ridge characteristics

b. A fingerprint will remain unchanged during an individual’s lifetime

c. Fingerprints have general ridge patterns that permit them to be systematically classified

d. a and c

e. All the above

27. Structural variations and irregularities caused by scratches, nicks, breaks, and wear may permit

the criminalist to relate:

a. A bullet to a gun

b. A scratch or abrasion mark to a single tool

c. A tire track to a particular automobile

d. All the above

28. Rifling of a bullet, regard handgun examinations, is usually accomplished by:

a. cutting all grooves in one pass with a cutter known as a broach

b. pressing all the grooves at once onto the barrel with a tool known as a button,

c. hammer-forging the barrel over a mandrel containing the reverse image of the rifling

d. All the above

29. Bloodstain pattern interpretation may uncover:

a. The direction from which blood originated

b. The angle at which a blood droplet struck a surface

c. The location or position of a victim at the time a bloody wound was inflicted

d. All the above

30. A loop must have

a. one or more ridges entering from one side of the print recurving and exiting from the

same side.

b. two ridges that separate and form straight lines.

c. a circular pattern in the center.

d. None of the above

31. Whorls are divided into four groups:

a. divided, loop, accidental, and plain.

b. plain, central pocket loop, double loop, and accidental.

c. circular, accidental, rounded, double

d. None of the above

32. The plain arch is formed by

a. ridges entering from one side of the print

b. ridges rising and falling

c. ridges exiting on opposite sides of a print (like a wave)

d. All the above

33. A contact or transfer pattern blood stain is created when

a. blood touches clothing and forms a u-shaped pattern.

b. blood flows in the direction of gravity.

c. an object with blood on it touches one that does not have blood on it.

d. None of the above

34. Regarding bloodstain pattern analysis, ___________ deposited on floors, walls, bedding, and

other relevant objects can provide valuable insights into events that occurred during the

commission of a violent crime.

35. Regarding fire and explosion scenes, ___________ explosives are ultra-sensitive to heat, shock,

or friction and provide the major ingredients found in blasting caps or primers used to detonate

other explosives.

36. The area of ___________ is the point on a two-dimensional plane from which the blood drops in

an impact pattern originated.

37. ___________ forensics involves the preservation, acquisition, extraction, and interpretation of

computer data.

38. The area of ___________ of an impact bloodstain pattern is the area in a three-dimensional

space from which the blood was projected.

39. Regarding bloodstain pattern analysis, a ___________ pattern is created when a blood-covered

object flings blood in an arc onto a nearby surface.

40. Any object with handwriting or print whose source or authenticity is in doubt may be referred to

as a ___________.

41. Regarding bloodstain pattern analysis, a/an ___________ pattern is caused by an injury to the

heart or a main artery and the pressure of the continuing pumping.

42. ___________ investigations often present complex and difficult circumstances to investigate

because the perpetrator has thoroughly planned the act, is not present during the act, and the

destruction is so extensive.

43. An ___________ blood pattern is created by blood that is expelled from the mouth or nose from

an internal injury.

44. Regarding bloodstain pattern analysis, a/an ___________ pattern is created when an object

blocks the deposition of blood spatter onto a target surface or object and the spatter is

deposited onto the object or person instead.

45. The crime scene investigator must remember that the location, distribution, and ___________of

bloodstains and spatters may be useful for interpreting and reconstructing the events that

produced the bleeding.

46. Regarding bloodstain pattern analysis, ___________ patterns are produced when the object

contacts the surface and is removed without any movement of the object.

47. Regarding bloodstain pattern analysis, a ___________ pattern is a series of drops that are

separate from other patterns, formed by blood dripping off an object or injury.

48. The search of the fire scene must focus on finding the fire’s ___________, which may be most

productive in any search for an accelerant or ignition device.

49. ___________ explosives are relatively insensitive to heat, shock, or friction and will normally

burn rather than detonate if ignited in small quantities in the open air.

50. The uniqueness of handwriting makes this type of physical evidence one of the few

definitive___________ characteristics available.

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