NEW JERSEY CITY UNIVERSITY
Department of Professional Security Studies
Spring 2021 Semester / SECU 310 Forensic Investigations
FINAL EXAMINATION (Posted on May 3, 2021)
Listed below are a variety of fifty (50) questions (matching, true/false, and fill in the blank). Please
choose THE BEST answer for each question. Please provide me your completed examination in a
WORD or PDF document by way of email. If there is a problem sending me the answers in that
format, then please email me your answers. THIS IS NOT A GROUP EXAMINATION. Your
responses must be your own and not duplicated or grouped together with any of your classmates.
Failure to comply will result in point deduction and/or failure for the examination.
The due date for submission of this FINAL EXAMINATION will be no later than
Monday, May 10, 2021 for FULL CREDIT.
1. Arches, the least common of the three general patterns, are divided into two distinct groups:
plain arches and tented arches.
2. Leaving a mobile device running but placing it in something that will block its communication is
the preferred method for preserving data on a mobile device.
3. Fingerprints are a reproduction of friction skin ridges found on the palm side of the fingers and
4. The epidermis is the outer layer of the skin, while the dermis is the inner layer of the skin.
5. Once a manufacturer chooses a rifling process, the class characteristics of the weapon’s barrel
will remain consistent; each will have the same number of lands and grooves, with the same
approximate width and direction of twist.
6. Once the finger touches a surface, perspiration, along with oils that may have been picked up by
touching the hairy portions of the body, is transferred onto that surface, leaving the finger’s
ridge pattern (a fingerprint).
7. ACE-V is a six-step process to identify and individualize a fingerprint.
8. Fingerprint classification systems are based on knowledge of fingerprint pattern classes.
9. All fingerprints are divided into three classes based on their general pattern: loops, arches, and
10. Mathematically, the probability for the existence of two identical fingerprint patterns in the
world’s population is extremely small.
11. The direction of travel of blood striking an object may be discerned because the pointed end of
a bloodstain always faces its direction of travel.
12. The individuality of a fingerprint is determined by its general shape or pattern, not by the study
of its ridge characteristics (minutiae points).
13. All whorl patterns have type lines and a minimum of two deltas.
14. A fingerprint classification system can identify an individual.
15. The inner surface of the barrel of a gun leaves its markings on a bullet passing through it.
16. Striations are fine lines found on the exterior of the barrel.
17. No two rifled barrels will have identical striation markings.
18. AFIS aids in classifying and retrieving fingerprints by converting the image of a fingerprint into
digital minutiae that contain data showing ridges at their points of termination (ridge endings)
and their branching into two ridges (bifurcations).
19. Once the finger touches a surface, body perspiration and/or oils present on the finger ridges are
transferred to that surface, leaving an impression.
20. Prints deposited which are invisible to the eye are commonly referred to as patent fingerprints.
21. Complications arise in extracting and evaluating data from mobile devices because of the variety
of ways that different devices store and manage data.
22. Regarding computer forensics, visible data is that data which the operating system is aware of.
23. Chemically, fire is a type of oxidation, which is the combination of oxygen with other substances
to produce new substances.
24. The arson investigator needs to begin examining a fire scene for signs of arson as soon as the
fire has been extinguished.
25. At the suspected point of origin of a fire, ash, and soot, along with porous materials which may
contain excess accelerant, should be collected, and stored in paper bags.
26. The basic principles underlying the use of fingerprints in criminal investigations are that:
a. A fingerprint is an individual characteristic because no two fingers have yet been found to
possess identical ridge characteristics
b. A fingerprint will remain unchanged during an individual’s lifetime
c. Fingerprints have general ridge patterns that permit them to be systematically classified
d. a and c
e. All the above
27. Structural variations and irregularities caused by scratches, nicks, breaks, and wear may permit
the criminalist to relate:
a. A bullet to a gun
b. A scratch or abrasion mark to a single tool
c. A tire track to a particular automobile
d. All the above
28. Rifling of a bullet, regard handgun examinations, is usually accomplished by:
a. cutting all grooves in one pass with a cutter known as a broach
b. pressing all the grooves at once onto the barrel with a tool known as a button,
c. hammer-forging the barrel over a mandrel containing the reverse image of the rifling
d. All the above
29. Bloodstain pattern interpretation may uncover:
a. The direction from which blood originated
b. The angle at which a blood droplet struck a surface
c. The location or position of a victim at the time a bloody wound was inflicted
d. All the above
30. A loop must have
a. one or more ridges entering from one side of the print recurving and exiting from the
b. two ridges that separate and form straight lines.
c. a circular pattern in the center.
d. None of the above
31. Whorls are divided into four groups:
a. divided, loop, accidental, and plain.
b. plain, central pocket loop, double loop, and accidental.
c. circular, accidental, rounded, double
d. None of the above
32. The plain arch is formed by
a. ridges entering from one side of the print
b. ridges rising and falling
c. ridges exiting on opposite sides of a print (like a wave)
d. All the above
33. A contact or transfer pattern blood stain is created when
a. blood touches clothing and forms a u-shaped pattern.
b. blood flows in the direction of gravity.
c. an object with blood on it touches one that does not have blood on it.
d. None of the above
34. Regarding bloodstain pattern analysis, ___________ deposited on floors, walls, bedding, and
other relevant objects can provide valuable insights into events that occurred during the
commission of a violent crime.
35. Regarding fire and explosion scenes, ___________ explosives are ultra-sensitive to heat, shock,
or friction and provide the major ingredients found in blasting caps or primers used to detonate
36. The area of ___________ is the point on a two-dimensional plane from which the blood drops in
an impact pattern originated.
37. ___________ forensics involves the preservation, acquisition, extraction, and interpretation of
38. The area of ___________ of an impact bloodstain pattern is the area in a three-dimensional
space from which the blood was projected.
39. Regarding bloodstain pattern analysis, a ___________ pattern is created when a blood-covered
object flings blood in an arc onto a nearby surface.
40. Any object with handwriting or print whose source or authenticity is in doubt may be referred to
as a ___________.
41. Regarding bloodstain pattern analysis, a/an ___________ pattern is caused by an injury to the
heart or a main artery and the pressure of the continuing pumping.
42. ___________ investigations often present complex and difficult circumstances to investigate
because the perpetrator has thoroughly planned the act, is not present during the act, and the
destruction is so extensive.
43. An ___________ blood pattern is created by blood that is expelled from the mouth or nose from
an internal injury.
44. Regarding bloodstain pattern analysis, a/an ___________ pattern is created when an object
blocks the deposition of blood spatter onto a target surface or object and the spatter is
deposited onto the object or person instead.
45. The crime scene investigator must remember that the location, distribution, and ___________of
bloodstains and spatters may be useful for interpreting and reconstructing the events that
produced the bleeding.
46. Regarding bloodstain pattern analysis, ___________ patterns are produced when the object
contacts the surface and is removed without any movement of the object.
47. Regarding bloodstain pattern analysis, a ___________ pattern is a series of drops that are
separate from other patterns, formed by blood dripping off an object or injury.
48. The search of the fire scene must focus on finding the fire’s ___________, which may be most
productive in any search for an accelerant or ignition device.
49. ___________ explosives are relatively insensitive to heat, shock, or friction and will normally
burn rather than detonate if ignited in small quantities in the open air.
50. The uniqueness of handwriting makes this type of physical evidence one of the few
definitive___________ characteristics available.
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