Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology
ninth edition


Princeton University


Florida International University


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Library of Congress Control Number: 2018951322

ISBN-13: 978-1-319-20580-5(mobi)

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One New York Plaza

Suite 4500

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With boundless love and appreciation, to Marlene Comer and Jami Furr, who fill our lives with love

and joy.


About the Authors

RONALD J. COMER has been a professor in Princeton University’s Department of Psychology

for the past 44 years, serving also as director of Clinical Psychology Studies and as chair of the

university’s Institutional Review Board. He has recently transitioned to emeritus status at the

university. He has received the President’s Award for Distinguished Teaching at Princeton,

where his various courses in abnormal psychology have been among the university’s most


Professor Comer is also Clinical Associate Professor of Family Medicine and Community

Health at Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School. He is a practicing clinical psychologist

and a consultant to Eden Autism Services and to hospitals and family practice residency


programs throughout New Jersey.

In addition to writing the textbooks Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology (ninth edition),

Abnormal Psychology (tenth edition), Psychology Around Us (second edition), and Case Studies in

Abnormal Psychology (second edition), Professor Comer has published a range of journal articles

and produced numerous widely used educational video programs, including The Higher

Education Video Library Series, The Video Anthology for Abnormal Psychology, Video Segments in

Neuroscience, Introduction to Psychology Video Clipboard, and Developmental Psychology Video


Professor Comer was an undergraduate at the University of Pennsylvania and a graduate

student at Clark University. He currently lives in Lawrenceville, New Jersey, with his wife

Marlene. From there he can keep a close eye on the often-frustrating Philadelphia sports teams

with whom he grew up.


JONATHAN S. COMER is a professor of psychology at Florida International University,

where he also directs the Mental Health Interventions and Technology (MINT) Program. He is –

President of the Society of Clinical Psychology (Division 12 of the American Psychological

Association) and a leader in the field of clinical child and adolescent psychology. The author of

130 scientific papers and chapters, he has received career awards from the American

Psychological Association, the Association for Psychological Science, and the Association for

Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies for his research on innovative treatment methods, childhood

anxiety and disruptive behaviors, and the impact of traumatic stress, disasters, and terrorism on

children. His current work also focuses on ties between psychopathology, neurocircuitry, and the

intergenerational transmission of psychological problems.

In addition to Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology (ninth edition), Professor Comer has

authored Abnormal Psychology (tenth edition) and Childhood Disorders (second edition) and


edited The Oxford Handbook of Research Strategies for Clinical Psychology, among other books. He

serves as Associate Editor of the journal Behavior Therapy and is on the Board of Directors of the

Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology. He is a Fellow of the American

Psychological Association, the Society of Clinical Psychology, and the Society for Child and

Family Policy and Practice. He is also a practicing clinical psychologist.

Professor Comer was an undergraduate at the University of Rochester and a graduate student

at Temple University. He currently lives in South Florida with his wife Jami and their children

Delia and Emmett. He loves music—both playing and listening—and enjoys keeping an eye on

the often-frustrating Philadelphia sports teams that his father taught him to love/hate.


Brief Contents
Abnormal Psychology in Science and Clinical Practice

1 Abnormal Psychology: Past and Present

2 Models of Abnormality

3 Clinical Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Problems of Anxiety and Mood

4 Anxiety, Obsessive-Compulsive, and Related Disorders

5 Disorders of Trauma and Stress

6 Depressive and Bipolar Disorders

7 Suicide

Problems of the Mind and Body

8 Disorders Featuring Somatic Symptoms

9 Eating Disorders

10 Substance Use and Addictive Disorders

11 Sexual Disorders and Gender Variations

Problems of Psychosis

12 Schizophrenia and Related Disorders

Life-Span Problems

13 Personality Disorders

14 Disorders Common Among Children and Adolescents

15 Disorders of Aging and Cognition


16 Law, Society, and the Mental Health Profession




Abnormal Psychology: Past and Present

What Is Psychological Abnormality?





The Elusive Nature of Abnormality

What Is Treatment?

How Was Abnormality Viewed and Treated in the Past?

Ancient Views and Treatments

Greek and Roman Views and Treatments

Europe in the Middle Ages: Demonology Returns

The Renaissance and the Rise of Asylums

The Nineteenth Century: Reform and Moral Treatment

The Early Twentieth Century: The Somatogenic and Psychogenic Perspectives

Recent Decades and Current Trends

How Are People with Severe Disturbances Cared For?

How Are People with Less Severe Disturbances Treated?

A Growing Emphasis on Preventing Disorders and Promoting Mental Health

Multicultural Psychology

The Increasing Influence of Insurance Coverage

What Are Today’s Leading Theories and Professions?

Technology and Mental Health

What Do Clinical Researchers Do?

The Case Study

The Correlational Method

The Experimental Method

Alternative Research Designs


What Are the Limits of Clinical Investigations?

Protecting Human Participants

Moving Forward

Key Terms

Quick Quiz


PSYCHWATCH Verbal Debuts

PSYCHWATCH Marching to a Different Drummer: Eccentrics


MINDTECH The Use and Misuse of Social Media


Models of Abnormality

The Biological Model

How Do Biological Theorists Explain Abnormal Behavior?

Biological Treatments

Assessing the Biological Model

The Psychodynamic Model

How Did Freud Explain Normal and Abnormal Functioning?

How Do Other Psychodynamic Explanations Differ from Freud’s?

Psychodynamic Therapies

Assessing the Psychodynamic Model

The Cognitive-Behavioral Model

The Behavioral Dimension

The Cognitive Dimension

The Cognitive-Behavioral Interplay

Assessing the Cognitive-Behavioral Model

The Humanistic-Existential Model

Rogers’ Humanistic Theory and Therapy

Gestalt Theory and Therapy

Spiritual Views and Interventions

Existential Theories and Therapy

Assessing the Humanistic-Existential Model


The Sociocultural Model: Family-Social and Multicultural Perspectives

How Do Family-Social Theorists Explain Abnormal Functioning?

Family-Social Treatments

How Do Multicultural Theorists Explain Abnormal Functioning?

Multicultural Treatments

Assessing the Sociocultural Model

Integrating the Models: The Developmental Psychopathology Perspective

Key Terms

Quick Quiz


… TRENDING TV Drug Ads Come Under Attack


MINDTECH Have Your Avatar Call My Avatar


Clinical Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Clinical Assessment: How and Why Does the Client Behave Abnormally?

Characteristics of Assessment Tools

Clinical Interviews

Clinical Tests

Clinical Observations

Diagnosis: Does the Client’s Syndrome Match a Known Disorder?

Classification Systems


Is DSM-5 an Effective Classification System?

Call for Change

Can Diagnosis and Labeling Cause Harm?

Treatment: How Might the Client Be Helped?

Treatment Decisions

The Effectiveness of Treatment

What Lies Ahead for Clinical Assessment?

Key Terms


Quick Quiz


MINDTECH Psychology’s WikiLeaks?

… TRENDING The Truth, the Whole Truth, and Nothing but the Truth

INFOCENTRAL DSM: The Bigger Picture


Anxiety, Obsessive-Compulsive, and Related Disorders

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

The Sociocultural Perspective: Societal and Multicultural Factors

The Psychodynamic Perspective

The Humanistic Perspective

The Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective

The Biological Perspective


Specific Phobias


What Causes Phobias?

How Are Phobias Treated?

Social Anxiety Disorder

What Causes Social Anxiety Disorder?

Treatments for Social Anxiety Disorder

Panic Disorder

The Biological Perspective

The Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

What Are the Features of Obsessions and Compulsions?

The Psychodynamic Perspective

The Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective

The Biological Perspective

Obsessive-Compulsive-Related Disorders

Integrating the Models: The Developmental Psychopathology Perspective


Key Terms

Quick Quiz


… TRENDING Separation Anxiety Disorder, Not Just For Kids Anymore


MINDTECH Social Media Jitters


Disorders of Trauma and Stress

Stress and Arousal: The Fight-or-Flight Response

Acute and Posttraumatic Stress Disorders

What Triggers Acute and Posttraumatic Stress Disorders?

Why Do People Develop Acute and Posttraumatic Stress Disorders?

How Do Clinicians Treat Acute and Posttraumatic Stress Disorders?

Dissociative Disorders

Dissociative Amnesia

Dissociative Identity Disorder

How Do Theorists Explain Dissociative Amnesia and Dissociative Identity Disorder?

How Are Dissociative Amnesia and Dissociative Identity Disorder Treated?

Depersonalization-Derealization Disorder

Getting a Handle on Trauma and Stress

Key Terms

Quick Quiz


INFOCENTRAL Sexual Assault

MINDTECH Virtual Reality Therapy: Better than the Real Thing?

PSYCHWATCH Repressed Childhood Memories or False Memory Syndrome?

PSYCHWATCH Peculiarities of Memory


Depressive and Bipolar Disorders

Unipolar Depression: The Depressive Disorders

How Common Is Unipolar Depression?

What Are the Symptoms of Depression?


Diagnosing Unipolar Depression

Stress and Unipolar Depression

The Biological Model of Unipolar Depression

The Psychological Models of Unipolar Depression

The Sociocultural Model of Unipolar Depression

Integrating the Models: The Developmental Psychopathology Perspective

Bipolar Disorders

What Are the Symptoms of Mania?

Diagnosing Bipolar Disorders

What Causes Bipolar Disorders?

What Are the Treatments for Bipolar Disorders?

Making Sense of All That Is Known

Key Terms

Quick Quiz


PSYCHWATCH Sadness at the Happiest of Times

INFOCENTRAL Exercise and Dietary Supplements

MINDTECH Texting: A Relationship Buster?

PSYCHWATCH Abnormality and Creativity: A Delicate Balance



What Is Suicide?

How Is Suicide Studied?

Patterns and Statistics

What Triggers a Suicide?

Stressful Events and Situations

Mood and Thought Changes

Alcohol and Other Drug Use

Mental Disorders

Modeling: The Contagion of Suicide

What Are the Underlying Causes of Suicide?

The Psychodynamic View


Durkheim’s Sociocultural View

The Interpersonal View

The Biological View

Is Suicide Linked to Age?



The Elderly

Treatment and Suicide

What Treatments Are Used After Suicide Attempts?

What Is Suicide Prevention?

Do Suicide Prevention Programs Work?

Psychological and Biological Insights Lag Behind

Key Terms

Quick Quiz


… TRENDING Internet Horrors

INFOCENTRAL The Right to Die by Suicide


Disorders Featuring Somatic Symptoms

Factitious Disorder

Conversion Disorder and Somatic Symptom Disorder

Conversion Disorder

Somatic Symptom Disorder

What Causes Conversion and Somatic Symptom Disorders?

How Are Conversion and Somatic Symptom Disorders Treated?

Illness Anxiety Disorder

Psychophysiological Disorders: Psychological Factors Affecting Other Medical

Traditional Psychophysiological Disorders

New Psychophysiological Disorders

Psychological Treatments for Physical Disorders

Relaxation Training





Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions

Support Groups and Emotion Expression

Combination Approaches

Expanding the Boundaries of Abnormal Psychology

Key Terms

Quick Quiz


PSYCHWATCH Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy

MINDTECH Can Social Media Spread “Mass Hysteria”?

INFOCENTRAL Sleep and Sleep Disorders


Eating Disorders

Anorexia Nervosa

The Clinical Picture

Medical Problems

Bulimia Nervosa


Compensatory Behaviors

Bulimia Nervosa Versus Anorexia Nervosa

Binge-Eating Disorder

What Causes Eating Disorders?

Psychodynamic Factors: Ego Deficiencies

Cognitive-Behavioral Factors


Biological Factors

Societal Pressures

Family Environment

Multicultural Factors: Racial and Ethnic Differences

Multicultural Factors: Gender Differences


How Are Eating Disorders Treated?

Treatments for Anorexia Nervosa

Treatments for Bulimia Nervosa

Treatments for Binge-Eating Disorder

Prevention of Eating Disorders: Wave of the Future

Key Terms

Quick Quiz


INFOCENTRAL Body Dissatisfaction

MINDTECH Dark Sites of the Internet

… TRENDING Shame on Body Shamers


Substance Use and Addictive Disorders



Sedative-Hypnotic Drugs





Stimulant Use Disorder

Hallucinogens, Cannabis, and Combinations of Substances



Combinations of Substances

What Causes Substance Use Disorders?

Sociocultural Views

Psychodynamic Views

Cognitive-Behavioral Views

Biological Views

The Developmental Psychopathology View


How Are Substance Use Disorders Treated?

Psychodynamic Therapies

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies

Biological Treatments

Sociocultural Therapies

Other Addictive Disorders

Gambling Disorder

Internet Gaming Disorder: Awaiting Official Status

New Wrinkles to a Familiar Story

Key Terms

Quick Quiz


PSYCHWATCH College Binge Drinking: An Extracurricular Crisis

… TRENDING The Opioid Crisis

INFOCENTRAL Smoking, Tobacco, and Nicotine


Sexual Disorders and Gender Variations

Sexual Dysfunctions

Disorders of Desire

Disorders of Excitement

Disorders of Orgasm

Disorders of Sexual Pain

Treatments for Sexual Dysfunctions

What Are the General Features of Sex Therapy?

What Techniques Are Used to Treat Particular Dysfunctions?

What Are the Current Trends in Sex Therapy?

Paraphilic Disorders

Fetishistic Disorder

Transvestic Disorder

Exhibitionistic Disorder

Voyeuristic Disorder

Frotteuristic Disorder


Pedophilic Disorder

Sexual Masochism Disorder

Sexual Sadism Disorder

Gender Variations

Transgender Functioning

Gender Dysphoria

Personal Topics Draw Public Attention

Key Terms

Quick Quiz


INFOCENTRAL Sex Throughout the Life Cycle

PSYCHWATCH Sexism, Viagra, and the Pill

MINDTECH “Sexting”: Healthy or Pathological?


Schizophrenia and Related Disorders

The Clinical Picture of Schizophrenia

What Are the Symptoms of Schizophrenia?

What Is the Course of Schizophrenia?

How Do Theorists Explain Schizophrenia?

Biological Views

Psychological Views

Sociocultural Views

Developmental Psychopathology View

How Are Schizophrenia and Other Severe Mental Disorders Treated?

Institutional Care in the Past

Institutional Care Takes a Turn for the Better

Antipsychotic Drugs


The Community Approach

An Important Lesson

Key Terms


Quick Quiz


INFOCENTRAL Hallucinations

PSYCHWATCH Postpartum Psychosis: A Dangerous Syndrome

PSYCHWATCH Lobotomy: How Could It Happen?

MINDTECH Putting a Face on Auditory Hallucinations


Personality Disorders

“Odd” Personality Disorders

Paranoid Personality Disorder

Schizoid Personality Disorder

Schizotypal Personality Disorder

“Dramatic” Personality Disorders

Antisocial Personality Disorder

Borderline Personality Disorder

Histrionic Personality Disorder

Narcissistic Personality Disorder

“Anxious” Personality Disorders

Avoidant Personality Disorder

Dependent Personality Disorder

Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

Multicultural Factors: Research Neglect

Are There Better Ways to Classify Personality Disorders?

The “Big Five” Theory of Personality and Personality Disorders

“Personality Disorder—Trait Specified”: DSM-5’s Proposed Dimensional Approach

Rediscovered, Then Reconsidered

Key Terms

Quick Quiz


… TRENDING Mass Murders: Where Does Such Violence Come From?

MINDTECH Selfies: Narcissistic or Not?




Disorders Common Among Children and Adolescents

Childhood and Adolescence

Childhood Anxiety Disorders

Separation Anxiety Disorder and Selective Mutism

Treatments for Childhood Anxiety Disorders

Depressive and Bipolar Disorders During Childhood

Major Depressive Disorder

Bipolar Disorder and Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder

Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder

What Are the Causes of Conduct Disorder?

How Do Clinicians Treat Conduct Disorder?

Elimination Disorders



Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Autism Spectrum Disorder

Intellectual Disability

Clinicians Discover Childhood and Adolescence

Key Terms

Quick Quiz


INFOCENTRAL Child and Adolescent Bullying


PSYCHWATCH Reading and ’Riting and ’Rithmetic


Disorders of Aging and Cognition

Old Age and Stress

Depression in Later Life

Anxiety Disorders in Later Life


Substance Misuse in Later Life

Psychotic Disorders in Later Life

Disorders of Cognition


Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Neurocognitive Disorders

Issues Affecting the Mental Health of the Elderly

Clinicians Discover the Elderly

Key Terms

Quick Quiz



INFOCENTRAL The Aging Population

MINDTECH Remember to Tweet; Tweet to Remember

… TRENDING Damaging the Brain: Football and CTE


Law, Society, and the Mental Health Profession

Law and Mental Health

How Do Clinicians Influence the Criminal Justice System?

How Do the Legislative and Judicial Systems Influence Mental Health Care?

In What Other Ways Do the Clinical and Legal Fields Interact?

What Ethical Principles Guide Mental Health Professionals?

Mental Health, Business, and Economics

Bringing Mental Health Services to the Workplace

The Economics of Mental Health

Technology and Mental Health

The Person Within the Profession

Within a Larger System

Key Terms

Quick Quiz


PSYCHWATCH Famous Insanity Defense Cases

PSYCHWATCH Serial Murderers: Madness or Badness?


… TRENDING Doctor, Do No Harm

INFOCENTRAL Personal and Professional Issues




Name Index

Subject Index


Ron Comer

I thought it was cute when my 13-year-old son Jon sometimes sat in on my 400-student

Abnormal Psychology lectures at Princeton, interesting when he took his first psychology course

at the University of Rochester, amusing when his undergraduate abnormal psychology course

used my textbook, troubling when he autographed copies of the book for his classmates,

surprising when he decided to major in psychology, and very satisfying when he entered the

clinical psychology graduate program at Temple University. However, what Jon has

accomplished professionally from that point forward has been nothing short of mind-boggling to

me, and I am not easily mind-boggled.

He has become one of today’s most productive and influential researchers, a leader in the

clinical field, a magnificent teacher, and a deeply caring and wise clinician. Little of this has to do

with me and everything to do with his intellectual gifts and remarkable work ethic, and the giants

in the field who have mentored him over the years—particularly Dave Barlow, Phil Kendall,

Dante Cicchetti, Bill Pelham, Anne Marie Albano, and Mark Olfson. Nevertheless, I’ll take it.

At some point during Jon’s flourishing career at Boston University and now Florida

International University, an unstated question began to emerge: Should he join me as co-author

on my abnormal psychology textbooks Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology and Abnormal

Psychology? I had never entertained the possibility of having a co-author during my 35 years of

writing these textbooks; and anyway, I believed Jon was too busy making his mark on the field,

receiving multiple career awards from the American Psychological Association and other

organizations, being elected President of the APA’s Society of Clinical Psychology, writing over

130 scientific papers, and the like. But, as the saying goes, “If you want to make God laugh, tell

Him your future plans.” Lo and behold, Jon and I are now co-authors of these books.

Ultimately, the decision to ask Jon to join me in this endeavor was a natural one. As textbook

authors grow older, publishers seek out possible co-authors (for reasons that shall go unstated in

order to protect my fragile ego and growing sense of mortality). It was clear to me that the ideal

co-author would have to be a highly accomplished researcher and writer who would complement

my particular areas of expertise and bring special knowledge in such areas as the developmental

psychopathology perspective, technology-driven and novel treatment interventions, cognitive-

behavioral approaches, brain circuitry, and more. And it was obvious that Jon was that person.

Moreover, Jon was receiving offers from various publishing companies to author their abnormal


psychology textbooks, and the notion of having a Comer textbook competing with another

Comer textbook was simply too much for me to bear (did I mention my fragile ego?). And, of

course, personally, the possibility of collaborating with someone whom I respect deeply and love

greatly was too alluring to pass up. Thus, with the current editions of Fundamentals of Abnormal

Psychology and Abnormal Psychology, Jon and I have begun a new journey, from which, we hope

and believe, readers will learn much and profit greatly.

Jon Comer

Roughly two decades ago, I entered the University of Rochester with the intention of studying

music. But I soon realized that, despite my continuing love of music, the study of clinical

psychology fascinated me most. Two pivotal undergraduate experiences brought the clinical field

to life for me and prompted me to realize that work in this area should eventually be at the center

of my professional life.

The first experience was taking a psychology course with (and later working in the laboratory

of) Dante Cicchetti, the contagiously passionate researcher and professor who introduced me to

developmental psychopathology—his “neurons-to-neighborhoods” perspective that focuses on

how dynamic interactions among psychological, biological, and sociocultural factors unfold

across time to produce both normal and abnormal human functioning. I was excited by the

power of this comprehensive perspective to explain individual differences, embrace interacting

causal factors, and meaningfully inform prevention and treatment interventions. To this day, the

developmental psychopathology perspective explicitly guides much of my research and thinking.

The second influential undergraduate experience was the power of a unique textbook. In the

fall of my sophomore year, I enrolled in an abnormal psychology course and found a familiar

name on the syllabus: “Comer”. . . as in “the required text for this course is Ronald Comer’s

Abnormal Psychology (Second Edition).” At the time I did not have a particularly deep

understanding of my father’s work. I knew he worked very hard writing this book and that a

great many colleges and universities had adopted it, but I had never sat down to read more than a

few paragraphs here or there. But now, his book, cover-to-cover, was on my list of required


As I read through the chapters for class, I became captivated by the book’s engaging writing

style, empathic descriptions of people with psychological disorders, blend of clinical research and

practice, and strategic incorporation of current events and popular culture. I was also struck by

how the book translated complex ideas into highly readable and easy to digest material. The book


managed to present clinical psychology as a vibrant and evolving science, with many of the

biggest answers still ahead. I was hooked; this was the field for me.

I recognize that it may seem like I was biased to be so favorably disposed toward this

particular textbook, given the family connection. However, I would actually suggest the opposite

—I was in my late teens at the time, and I must confess that I was not exactly looking to give my

father copious credit for much during those years.

Over the past 20 years, from my time as a young undergraduate to my current academic and

professional roles, I have been continually reminded that I am far from alone in my experiences

with this extraordinary text. Countless individuals, from college freshmen to many of the field’s

senior leaders, have approached me to tell me what a special experience they have had with my

father’s textbook—whether as a student, as an instructor, or (like myself) as both.

When the opportunity arose to join Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology and Abnormal

Psychology as a co-author, it was a no-brainer for me. It has been a privilege to bring my particular

background and areas of expertise to help expand these already outstanding books. For example,

together my father and I have worked to incorporate the increasingly influential developmental

psychopathology perspective throughout the books, along with a contemporary emphasis on

biopsychosocial accounts of abnormality. As an instructor in psychology, I have always taken

seriously my role as an ambassador for this field, someone who can introduce a captivating field

to students, excite them about it, and provide them with insights that can influence their

continued intellectual and professional development. Co-authoring the new editions of

Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology and Abnormal Psychology has provided me with a special

opportunity to expand this ambassadorship and to reach a greater number of students than I

could have previously imagined. I am very appreciative.

On a more personal note, the greatest joy of undertaking this project has been to do so under

the mentorship of my father, Ronald Comer—a peerless educator and writer who has helped

teach and cultivate so many individuals over the years. Working with him has given me a coveted

front row seat to learn from the “master” about how to best communicate the complexities of the

field and how to respectfully portray mental dysfunction and human suffering, all with his

unique blend of empathy, dignity, and humor. He has mentored me on this project—as he has

throughout so many experiences of my life—with great wisdom, common sense, patience,

selflessness, and love. This field has no shortage of individuals who feel fortunate to have been

touched by his inimitable gifts. But no one more so than me.


Ron & Jon Comer

Between Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology and Abnormal Psychology, the current textbook

represents the nineteenth edition of one or the other of the books. This textbook journey has

been a labor of love, but also one in which each edition is accompanied by an enormous amount

of work and ridiculous pressure, not to mention countless sleepless nights. We mention these

labors not only because we are world-class whiners but also to emphasize that we approach each

edition as a totally new undertaking rather than as a superficial update of past editions. Our goal

is to make each edition fresh by approaching our content coverage and pedagogical offerings as if

we were writing a completely new book. As a result, each edition includes cutting-edge content

reflecting new developments in the field, as well as in the world around us, delivered to readers

via innovative and enlightening …

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