Recruitment Response 1

S TA F F I N G O R G A N I Z AT I O N S
Ninth Edition

Herbert G. Heneman III
University of Wisconsin– Madison

Timothy A. Judge
The Ohio State University

John D. Kammeyer- Mueller
University of Minnesota

Pangloss Industries
Columbus, OH

1259756556_ch00_pi_xx.indd 1 12/8/17 4:49 PM

STAFFING ORGANIZATIONS, NINTH EDITION

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: Heneman, Herbert G., III, 1944– author. | Judge, Tim, author. |
Kammeyer-Mueller, John, author.
Title: Staffing organizations / Herbert G. Heneman III, University of
Wisconsin-Madison, Timothy A. Judge, Ohio State University, John D.
Kammeyer-Mueller, University of Minnesota.
Description: Ninth edition. | Columbus, OH : Pangloss Industries, [2019]
Identifiers: LCCN 2017054981 | ISBN 9781259756559 (hardcover : alk. paper)
Subjects: LCSH: Employees—Recruiting. | Employee selection.
Classification: LCC HF5549.5.R44 H46 2019 | DDC 658.3/11—dc23
LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2017054981

www.mhhe.com

9781259756559_ch00_pi-xx_SE.indd 2 12/27/17 9:45 PM

iii

A U T H O R P R O F I L E S

Herbert G. Heneman III is the Dickson- Bascom Professor Emeritus in the
Management and Human Resources Department, School of Business, University
of Wisconsin– Madison. He also serves as a se nior researcher at the Wisconsin
Center for Educational Research. Herb has been a visiting faculty member at the
University of Washington and the University of Florida, and he was the University
Distinguished Visiting Professor at The Ohio State University. His research is in
the areas of staffing, per for mance management, compensation, and work motiva-
tion. He is currently investigating the design and effectiveness of teacher per for-
mance management and compensation systems. Herb was on the board of directors
of the Society for Human Resource Management Foundation and served as its
director of research. He is the se nior author of three other textbooks on human
resource management. Herb is a Fellow of the Society for Industrial and Orga-
nizational Psy chol ogy, the American Psychological Association, and the Acad emy
of Management. He is also the recipient of career achievement awards from the
Human Resources Division of the Acad emy of Management and from the Society
for Human Resource Management.

Timothy A. Judge is the Joseph A. Alutto Chair in Leadership Effectiveness
and executive director of the Fisher Leadership Initiative in the Department of
Management and Human Resources, Fisher College of Business, The Ohio State
University. Tim is also the director of research for Stay Metrics, a start-up com-
pany in Notre Dame’s Innovation Park. Prior to receiving his PhD at the University
of Illinois, Tim was a man ag er for Kohl’s department stores. Tim has served on
the faculties of Cornell University, University of Iowa, University of Florida, and
University of Notre Dame. Tim’s teaching and research interests are in the areas of
personality, leadership and influence be hav iors, staffing, and job attitudes. Tim is a
former program chair for the Society for Industrial and Orga nizational Psy chol ogy
and a past chair of the Human Resources Division of the Acad emy of Manage-
ment. He has also served on the Acad emy of Management Board of Governors.
Tim is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association, the Society for Indus-
trial and Orga nizational Psy chol ogy, the American Psychological Society, and the
Acad emy of Management.

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iv Author Profiles

John D. Kammeyer- Mueller is the Curtis L. Carlson Professor of Industrial Rela-
tions in the Department of Work and Organ izations, Carlson School of Man-
agement, University of Minnesota. John’s primary research interests include the
areas of orga nizational socialization and employee adjustment, personality and
the stress pro cess, employee retention, and career development. He has taught
courses related to orga nizational staffing at the undergraduate, master’s, and doc-
toral levels. His research work has appeared in Acad emy of Management Journal;
the Journal of Applied Psy chol ogy; Personnel Psy chol ogy; the Journal of Manage-
ment; and the Journal of Orga nizational Be hav ior, among other outlets. He serves
on the editorial boards of the Journal of Applied Psy chol ogy; Personnel Psy chol ogy;
and Orga nizational Research Methods. In addition to his scholarly work, John has
performed consulting work in the areas of employee satisfaction, retention, and
workplace safety and health for 3M Corporation, Allegiance Healthcare, Allina
Healthcare, and the State of Minnesota. He has also worked with the Florida
Nurses Association and the Florida Bar on research proj ects of interest to their
professional membership.

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v

P R E FAC E

There has been a continual effort to incorporate strategic orga nizational con-cerns into every edition of the textbook. The ninth edition of Staffing Organ-izations develops these concepts significantly. Based on ideas from leading
human resources thinkers, new discussions describe how to incorporate orga-
nizational strategy into every part of the staffing pro cess. This material not only
underlines the importance of strategic thinking for students, but provides specific
guidance for specific actions that staffing decision makers can take to improve tal-
ent management.

This edition has been the beneficiary of major restructuring and updating to
ensure continuing alignment of the material with current in- the- field business prac-
tices. The changes range from small inclusions of new standards to major chapter
revisions. The new structure will make it easier for students to see how each part
of the staffing pro cess proceeds from beginning to end, and it will also help them
see how the topics fit together to create a cohesive staffing management system.

The human resources landscape continues to be transformed by technology, and
this edition of the textbook reflects this influence. The use of human resources infor-
mation systems for tasks like recruitment, se lection, and forecasting is now thor-
oughly integrated into all sections. The role of social media, the Internet, and other
information management tools is emphasized in several chapters, and new examples
from companies keep the application of concepts fresh and current.

The changes for this edition reflect the integration of technology into core staff-
ing functions. Many of the previous headings related to web- based topics have thus
been eliminated to reflect that these are no longer novel add- ons to staffing manage-
ment but an integral part of the pro cess.

Listed below are updates to each chapter.

Chapter One: Staffing Models and Strategy

• Updated workforce growth statistics throughout the chapter
• Updated list of companies that are intensively hiring
• Updated material on Gore’s position as one of Fortune magazine’s 100 Best

Companies to Work For
• New material on person- job match and person- organization fit

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vi Preface

• New material based on a recent report on the current talent shortage in the IT,
skilled trades, and sales industries

• Added material on the distinction between the labor force size and the labor
force participation rate

• Updated definition of staffing ethics from the Society for Human Resource
Management

Chapter Two: Legal Compliance

• New material on classifying individuals as either employees or in de pen-
dent contractors based on criteria from the Internal Revenue Ser vice and the
Department of Labor

• Guidance from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) on
defining discrimination based on the meaning of race/color, national origin,
sex, religion, disability, age, pregnancy, and ge ne tic information

• Updated information on the protected characteristics of sexual orientation and
gender identity

Chapter Three: Planning

• Increased emphasis on orga nizational culture in the planning pro cess
• New material on executive buy-in during human resources planning
• Updated discussion of workforce skills demand and employment patterns
• Revised exhibit showing labor force statistics trends
• New material on trends in labor force participation and work hours
• Streamlined discussion of forecasting techniques
• Comprehensive review of research on flexible workforce quality
• New material reviewing research on when to use outsourcing
• Updated information regarding affirmative action for veterans and qualified

individuals with disabilities

Chapter Four: Job Analy sis and Rewards

• Greater emphasis on implementing competency- based job analy sis
• New figure showing the pro cess of job requirements job analy sis
• New figure showing the pro cess of competency- based job analy sis
• New figure outlining the distinctions among knowledge, skills, abilities, and

other characteristics and their workplace relevance
• Streamlined discussion of O*NET models
• Revised end- of- chapter cases
• Revised information on the types of evidence of essential job functions

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Preface vii

Chapter Five: External Recruitment

• New material on integrating in- house recruitment with external vendors
• Integration of online recruitment techniques across topic areas
• Comprehensive review of research on applicant reactions to the external recruit-

ment pro cess
• Increased discussion of social media effects on recruitment
• Revised and updated pre sen ta tion of recruitment messages
• Increased treatment of targeted recruitment techniques
• New discussion of the transition from recruitment to se lection
• Updated discussion regarding policies about written job applicants
• Revised material on best- practice recruitment ideas from the EEOC
• Updated information on recruitment using social media and job advertisements

Chapter Six: Internal Recruitment

• New material describing best practices in the strategic policy development
pro cess

• Revised and updated pre sen ta tion of recruitment messages
• Revised and updated discussion of replacement and succession plans
• New discussion of the transition from recruitment to se lection
• New material on best- practice promotion ideas from the EEOC
• New discussion of barriers to upward mobility and improving upward mobility

Chapter Seven: Mea sure ment

• Updated example of the nominal level of mea sure ment
• New material on biases in subjective mea sure ment and rater training
• Revised percentiles example
• New discussion of the role of biases and contextual factors in interrater reliability
• New material on how construct- , content- , and criterion- related validation evi-

dence should be amassed and interpreted together
• New material on the situational appropriateness of predictive versus concur-

rent validation designs
• Revised definition and discussion of content validity
• Updated illustrative study of the Mary land Department of Transportation
• New material reviewing the meta- analytic work on prior validity generaliza-

tion and the gaps in our current understanding
• New example using insights from Glassdoor to highlight practical consider-

ations in staffing
• New discussion of mobile and Internet- based test administration

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viii Preface

Chapter Eight: External Se lection I

• New material on applicant reactions toward per for mance tests and the valid-
ity of such tests

• Updated discussion of video résumés
• New material on the adverse impact of résumés, letters of recommendation,

credit checks, and biodata
• New discussion of the “double jeopardy” effect
• New discussion of the usefulness of a college education and quality of school

as educational requirements, including examples
• New material on how studying abroad leads to an expanded cultural intelli-

gence, an area of extracurricular activities that may be impor tant for staffing
• New material on how experience is multidimensional, with many characteris-

tics and levels of analy sis
• New discussion of “Ban the Box” legislation
• New material on initial impressions as bias in initial interviews
• Updated material on applicant reactions and attraction from meta- analytic

research
• Updated list of states that currently limit the use of credit information in

staffing
• New material on social media screening and safeguards
• New discussion of bona fide occupational qualification claims and their

justification

Chapter Nine: External Se lection II

• Updated Big Five stability and heritability estimates with the most recent
meta- analytic research

• Updated website links and test information throughout the chapter
• New material and discussion on the “too much of a good thing” effect with

conscientiousness
• New material and discussion on the “trivial validities” of personality, includ-

ing updated meta- analytic research and additional personality frameworks
• New material and meta- analytic evidence on personality test faking
• New material and discussion on when socially desirable be hav ior is not desir-

able for job per for mance
• Updated Exhibits 9.2 and 9.13 based on new evidence
• Updated evaluation of cognitive ability tests with newest meta- analytic research

on organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior
• Revised adverse impact evidence for cognitive ability tests
• New material on how “star applicants” can become offended by having to take

cognitive ability tests

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Preface ix

• New material and discussion on physical abilities tests that draw from the
most recent meta- analytic estimates

• New material and discussion on performance- based emotional intelligence
mea sure ment and emotional intelligence validity

• Updated meta- analytic validity estimates of work sample tests
• New material and discussion on the “situational” perspective on situational

judgment tests
• New material on integrity test validity and faking
• New material on vocational congruence and attained vocational aspirations
• Updated meta- analytic research and other material for interviews, including

structured interview characteristics, behavioral and situational interview com-
parisons, validity, and interviewer characteristics

• New material on the National Football League (NFL) and how OCBs matters
less to outsiders (e.g., external con sul tants) than to insiders in team se lection

• Updated statistics and figures on drug testing
• Revised material on the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Se lection Procedures
• New discussion of marijuana and other drug testing

Chapter Ten: Internal Se lection

• Updated peer assessment section with meta- analytic results
• New material on the impact of self- assessments on biased promotion judgments
• New material on the impact of biases such as po liti cal skill on promotability

ratings
• New meta- analytic material on the characteristics of assessment centers
• New material and discussion on solutions for the assessment center construct

validity dilemma
• Revised the validity ranges to match traditional standards

Chapter Eleven: Decision Making

• New section on predictive analytics
• New section describing the interface between orga nizational leaders and HR

representatives based on best practices in the field
• New material covering techniques for assessing economic impact
• New exhibit reviewing techniques for assessing links between economic impact

analy sis and other functional areas of the business
• New exhibit covering the role of decision makers in se lection
• New section covering differential weighting techniques for predictors
• Updated and revised discussion of choosing among weighting schemes
• Streamlined discussion of test score banding

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x Preface

Chapter Twelve: Final Match

• New section on long- term adjustment and the pro cess of new hire onboarding
over time

• Updated and revised discussion of specific onboarding practices
• Increased discussion of expatriate adjustment in staffing
• Updated and revised discussion of the strategic approach to job offers, with

increased linkages to decision making and system management
• Streamlined discussion of pay policies
• Streamlined discussion of employment contracts
• Revised material on negligent hiring and minimizing its occurrence

Chapter Thirteen: Staffing System Management

• New section describing the design and administration of staffing systems
• Emphasis on strategic fit between staffing systems and orga nizational goals

and pro cesses
• Incorporation of strategic management research regarding HR systems
• New exhibit contrasting hierarchical and participative staffing systems
• Review of techniques for defining the mission of staffing
• Updated and revised material on orga nizational arrangements
• New EEO-1 report
• New discussion of incorporating implicit (hidden) bias material into EEO

training
• New and revised material on internal and external dispute resolution procedures

Chapter Fourteen: Retention Management

• Enhanced review of techniques for analyzing turnover
• Comprehensive update and reor ga ni za tion of material related to retention

initiatives
• New section on predictive analytics in retention management
• New exhibit contrasting hire, quit, and layoff differences across industries
• New exhibit demonstrating how to use turnover breakout results
• Updated exhibit describing guidelines for increasing satisfaction and retention

of employees
• Updated and revised discussion of causes of turnover
• Updated and revised discussion of the costs and benefits of turnover

In preparing previous editions, we have benefited greatly from the critiques and
suggestions of numerous people whose assistance was invaluable. They helped us

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Preface xi

identify new topics, as well as clarify, rearrange, and delete material. We extend our
many thanks to the following individuals:

• Amy Banta, Franklin University
• Fred Dorn, University of Mississippi
• Hank Findley, Troy University
• Diane Hagan, Ohio Business College
• Mark Lengnick- Hall, University of Texas– San Antonio

We wish to extend a special note of thanks to the McGraw- Hill Education pub-
lishing team—in par tic u lar, Michael Ablassmeir, Laura Spell, Melissa Leick, and
Jane Beck— for their hard work and continued support of the number- one staffing
textbook in the market. Thanks also to the staff at Westchester Publishing Ser-
vices for their dedicated work in this collaborative undertaking. We wish to thank
Dr. David R. Glerum for his hard work on manuscript revisions, editing, and prepa-
ration. Fi nally, we wish to thank you— the students and faculty who use the book. If
there is anything we can do to improve your experience with Staffing Organ izations,
please contact us. We will be happy to hear from you.

1259756556_ch00_pi_xx.indd 11 12/8/17 4:49 PM

1259756556_ch00_pi_xx.indd 12 12/8/17 4:49 PM

xiii

C O N T E N T S

PA R T O N E

The Nature of Staffing 3

C H A P T E R O N E
Staffing Models and Strategy 5
Learning Objectives and Introduction 6

Learning Objectives 6
Introduction 6

The Nature of Staffing 7
The Big Picture 7
Definition of Staffing 10
Implications of Definition 10
Staffing System Examples 13

Staffing Models 15
Staffing Quantity: Levels 15
Staffing Quality: Person/Job Match 16
Staffing Quality: Person/Or ga ni za tion

Match 18
Staffing System Components 20
Staffing Organ izations 23

Staffing Strategy 27
Staffing Levels 27
Staffing Quality 32

Staffing Ethics 33
Plan for the Book 36
Summary 37
Discussion Questions 38
Ethical Issues 38

Applications 38
Staffing for Your Own Job 38
Staffing Strategy for a New Plant 40

Endnotes 41

PA R T T W O

Support Activities 45

C H A P T E R T W O
Legal Compliance 47
Learning Objectives and Introduction 49

Learning Objectives 49
Introduction 49

The Employment Relationship 50
Employer– Employee 50
In de pen dent Contractors 53
Temporary Employees 54
Unpaid Interns and Trainees 55

Laws and Regulations 55
Need for Laws and Regulations 55
Sources of Laws and Regulations 56

EEO/AA Laws: General Provisions and
Enforcement 58

General Provisions 58
Enforcement: EEOC 61
Enforcement: OFCCP 67

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xiv Contents

EEO/AA Laws: Specific Staffing
Provisions 69

Civil Rights Acts (1964, 1978, 1991) 69
Age Discrimination in Employment Act

(1967) 72
Americans With Disabilities Act (1990,

2008) 73
Ge ne tic Information Nondiscrimination Act

(2008) 77
Rehabilitation Act (1973) 78
Executive Order 11246 (1965, 1967,

2014) 78
Other Staffing Laws 79

Federal Laws 79
State and Local Laws 82
Civil Ser vice Laws and Regulations 83

Legal Issues in Remainder of Book 85
Summary 85
Discussion Questions 86
Ethical Issues 86
Applications 87

Age Discrimination in a Promotion? 87
Disparate Impact: What Do the Statistics

Mean? 88
Endnotes 89

C H A P T E R T H R E E
Planning 91
Learning Objectives and Introduction 93

Learning Objectives 93
Introduction 93

Internal and External Influences 94
Orga nizational Strategy 94
Orga nizational Culture 95
Labor Markets 97
Technology 102

Human Resource Planning 103
Pro cess and Example 103
Initial Decisions 105
Forecasting HR Requirements 108
Forecasting HR Availabilities 111
Reconciliation and Gaps 119

Staffing Planning 121
Staffing Planning Pro cess 121
Core Workforce 124
Flexible Workforce 125
Outsourcing 128

Diversity Planning 130
Demography of the American Workforce 130
Business Case for Diversity 131
Planning for Diversity 132

Legal Issues 134
Affirmative Action Plans 134
Legality of AAPs and Diversity

Programs 139
AAPs for Veterans and Individuals With

Disabilities 142
EEO and Temporary Workers 142

Summary 143
Discussion Questions 144
Ethical Issues 144
Applications 145

Markov Analy sis and Forecasting 145
Deciding Whether to Use Flexible

Staffing 145
Endnotes 147

C H A P T E R F O U R
Job Analy sis and Rewards 153
Learning Objectives and Introduction 155

Learning Objectives 155
Introduction 155

The Need for Job Analy sis 156
Types of Job Analy sis 156
The Changing Nature of Jobs 157

Job Requirements Job Analy sis 159
Overview 159
Job Requirements Matrix 160
Job Descriptions and Job

Specifications 168
Collecting Job Requirements

Information 169
Competency- Based Job Analy sis 177

Overview 179

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Contents xv

Nature of Competencies 179
Collecting Competency Information 182

Job Rewards 185
Types of Rewards 185
Employee Value Proposition 185
Collecting Job Rewards Information 186

Legal Issues 193
Job Relatedness and Court Cases 193
Essential Job Functions 194

Summary 195
Discussion Questions 196
Ethical Issues 197
Applications 197

Conducting a Job Requirements or Job
Rewards Job Analy sis 197

Maintaining Job Descriptions 198
Endnotes 199

PA R T T H R E E

Staffing Activities: Recruitment 203

C H A P T E R F I V E
External Recruitment 205
Learning Objectives and Introduction 207

Learning Objectives 207
Introduction 207

Strategic Recruitment Planning 208
Defining Strategic External Recruitment

Goals 209
Open Versus Targeted Recruitment 211
Organ ization and Administration 213

Applicant Reactions 219
Reactions to Job and Orga nizational

Characteristics 220
Reactions to Recruiters 220
Reactions to the Recruitment Pro cess 221
Reactions to Diversity Issues 222

Communication 223
Communication Message 223
Communication Media 229

Strategy Implementation 236
Individual Recruitment Sources 236
Social Recruitment Sources 239
Orga nizational Recruitment Sources 242
Recruitment Metrics 248

Transition to Se lection 251
Legal Issues 252

Definition of a Job Applicant 252
Affirmative Action Programs 254
Electronic Recruitment 254
Job Advertisements 257
Fraud and Misrepre sen ta tion 257

Summary 258
Discussion Questions 259
Ethical Issues 259
Applications 260

Improving a College Recruitment
Program 260

Internet Recruitment 262
Endnotes 263

C H A P T E R S I X
Internal Recruitment 269
Learning Objectives and Introduction 270

Learning Objectives 270
Introduction 270

Strategic Recruitment Planning 271
Defining Strategic Internal Recruitment

Goals 271
Mobility Paths and Policies 271
Closed, Open, and Hybrid Recruitment 276
Organ ization and Administration 279
Timing 280

Applicant Reactions 283
Communication 284

Communication Message 284
Communication Media 285

Strategy Implementation 286
Recruitment Sources 286
Recruitment Metrics 292

Transition to Se lection 295
Legal Issues 295

1259756556_ch00_pi_xx.indd 15 12/8/17 4:49 PM

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