THE INFLUENCE OF CROSS-CULTURAL LIVED EXPERIENCE ON STUDENT LEADERSHIP CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT
Grand Canyon University
Feb. 20, 2021
Literature Review: Background to the Problem
The modern learning environment is increasingly becoming culturally diverse (Boberg & Borgeois 2016).
Results from previous studies conducted by Triggs (2021) show that promoting cross-cultural competence improves academic performance and leadership skills
Similarly, Owens and Hite (2020) found that students’ awareness of cross-cultural differences improves their communication and leadership competence
However, most leadership studies in K-12 schools only focus on administrators and school leads
Educators also encounter challenges in meeting the academic and learning needs of students from wide cultural backgrounds (Genao, 2016)
There is a scarcity of studies that explore the effects of cross-cultural factors on students’ academic and leadership development (Bartel-Radic & Giannelloni, 2017).
Diversity issues among students in culturally diverse K-12 learning institutions have been studied by many researchers. However, most of the studies conducted on leadership in culturally diverse K-12 schools have mostly focused on leadership regarding instructors, school heads and administrators, and educational stakeholders rather than leadership issues among student leaders in culturally diverse K-12 schools (Genao, 2016). Boberg and Borgeois (2016) acknowledge the lack of focus by researchers on cross-cultural competencies among students, and how curricular and co-curricular activities can be customized to promote student leadership in culturally diverse schools.
Literature Review: Problem Space
Many studies do not focus on cross-cultural competencies among learners (Litts et al., 2020).
For instance, studies on cultural differences and leadership often focus more on teachers and school leaders (Boberg & Borgeois, 2016)
As a result, there is a scarcity of research that explore students’ cross-cultural experience and their leadership and academic performance (Boberg & Borgeois, 2016)
Engagement gaps such as inequality and alienation among minority and foreign students have only been explored within administrative leadership (Mawhinney, 2018).
Thus, research on promoting student leadership and academic attainment in culturally diverse K-12 schools ought to be considered
There is a need to further explore this problem by investigating the impact of cross cultural experience on students’ leadership development
Boberg and Borgeois (2016) acknowledge the lack of focus by researchers on cross-cultural competencies among students, and how curricular and co-curricular activities can be customized to promote student leadership in culturally diverse schools. Engagement gaps such as inequality and alienation among minority domestic and foreign students have been studied within the context of administrative leadership rather than student leadership (Genao, 2016). As such, research on promoting student leadership and academic attainment in culturally diverse K-12 schools ought to be considered. The gap of the need to apply curricular and co-curricular activities to promote student leadership in K-12 schools has not received attention since student leadership in culturally diverse schools has been ignored in favor of other areas of concern perceived to be more important such as educational attainment.
Literature Review: Theoretical Foundations
The Boundary-Breaking Leadership Development Model promotes education across multicultural settings
It provides framework for overcoming challenges related to gender, culture,. Ethnicity, and diverse educational settings (Tomlinson, 2013).
It focuses on different aspects of educational environments, such as leadership development and generative learning (Tomlinson, 2013).
The Boundary-Breaking Leadership Development Model (BBLDM) is a framework that promotes education across international settings due to its potential to overcome the challenges associated with gender, culture, nationality, or ethnicity in diverse educational settings. The model focuses on several aspects within the educational context including leadership development, generative learning, creation of discussion forums that promote diversity, sense, and responsibility for the community, and cultivation of respect, and ethical and collaborative spirit (Tomlinson, 2013). The BBLDM can be applied to foster unity through collaboration among students with diverse characteristics.
Literature Review: Review of Literature
Theme 1: Progressive competency
Theme 2: Cultural competencies
Theme 3: Ethical attitude
Theme 4: Student leadership skills
Numerous researchers investigate how progressive competency, cultural skills, and ethical behaviors promote students’ academic outcomes. For instance, Sudker (2019) investigates how cultural competencies impact student’s academic outcomes in urban elementary schools (Sudler, 2019). Additionally, Ticha, Abery, and Kincade (2018) examine how a set of ethical attitudes, appropriate behaviors, and effective policies integrate to promote effective professionals to work effectively in culturally diverse educational settings. Furthermore, Jamellah (2016) assesses the effectiveness of Teachers’ Awareness of Cultural Diversity and Academic Achievement in Ninth Grade Academies and Senior High Schools. The Relationship between Teacher Cultural Competency and Student Engagement (Robinson, 2012). According to the cultural proficiency model, cultural competence is progressive and includes six phases that are associated with the ethnic relative and ethnocentric stages of Bennett’s model (Chen, 2014).
It is not known if cross-cultural difference affects student leadership and academic achievement.
It is not known if and to what degree cross-cultural experience influences students’ leadership development and academic performance. The relationship between cross-cultural curricular and co-curricular activities and experiences, and student leadership and academic performance is not clearly understood. Nevertheless, curricular and co-curricular activities influence student academic outcomes and leadership behaviors in diverse K-12 learning institutions. The population of concern is K1-12 students in Los Angeles County school district; the sample consists of 15 students and five teachers from 5 District schools with students from diverse cultural backgrounds from grade 9-12 in Santa Clarita, California. Girls and boys in different grade levels will be included in the study. The preferred schools are those that offer cross-cultural enrichment programs such as summer/winter exchange programs, and immersion programs.
Student leadership development and academic achievements in culturally diverse schools are very important indicators of effective culture in K-12 schools. Student leaders in culturally diverse schools are faced with the challenges associated with diversity such as contempt and intimidation, which can impact mental, emotional, and social health apart from low academic attainment (Allen, 2017). As such, culturally inclusive curricular and co-curricular activities can be used to improve social cohesion, which will in turn increase their academic performance and positive leadership behaviors (Allen, 2017). In this regard, it will be necessary to investigate how culturally inclusive and appropriate curricular and co-curricular activities influence student leadership behaviors and academic outcomes.
Research Questions and Phenomenon
RQ1: Does cross-cultural lived experiences influence student leadership capacity development?
RQ2: How does cross-cultural lived experiences influence student academic achievement ?
Phenomenon: Cross-cultural awareness is associated with positive student leadership qualities and behaviors.
RQ1: Does cross-cultural experience affect student leadership development?
RQ2: How does cross-cultural experience influence student academic development?
RQ3: How do cross-cultural attitudes and behaviors influence student leadership development and academic achievement?
Phenomenon: Cross-cultural awareness is associated with positive student leadership qualities and behaviors.
Qualitative method is selected as it examines specific sociocultural phenomenon operates (Poucher et al., 2020)
Qualitative design can be defined as a method that focuses on gathering non-numerical data, which include feelings and perceptions of target participants
Purpose Statement: The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study is to explore the effects of cross-cultural experience on student leadership development and academic performance, located at a high school in greater Orlando area, Florida.
Quantitative method refers to an iterative data gathering method in which evidence is assessed, hypothesis formulated, and an inference drawn from the outcomes (Leavy, 2017)
Justification for qualitative:
The justification for selecting qualitative design is that it is ideal for acknowledging the systematic nature of human behavior (Saunders et al., 2018)
The socially inclusive nature of qualitative methodology makes it appropriate for this study (Cresswell & Cresswell, 2017)
Justification against quantitative:
One reason for not using this method is that it fails to consider the meaning behind social phenomena. Additionally, it only seeks to find numerical answers to a specific question, and as such, not idea for non-numerical studies Cresswell & Cresswell, 2017)
Qualitative research is subjective and is focused on the interpretation and understanding of social phenomena within natural settings (Saunders et al., 2018). As such, the methodology is suitable for the study since it aids in understanding and interpretation of the current state of student leadership competencies and academic outcomes in culturally diverse K-12 schools. It can also help to determine the right strategies that can be applied to prevent and manage the diversity-related challenges that obstruct leadership and academic attainment in. Furthermore, qualitative methodology accommodates the complexity and multiple realities regarding new ideas and themes that emerge from the collected data (Saunders et al., 2018). In this regard, the methodology would allow the study to expand or accommodate and generate new ideas that would improve understanding of diversity issues in schools. The sensitive nature of cultural diversity calls for caution regarding the methods used to collect data, and the behaviors of the researcher (Poucher et al., 2020). For this reason, the qualitative methodology is appropriate since the emphasis is put on ethical behaviors to cultivate a socially conducive environment where respondents can comfortably give their genuine opinions, which is crucial for the accuracy and reliability of the collected data. The qualitative methodology also allows for data analysis in non-linear, iterative, and holistic ways, which would improve the quality of the study (Cresswell & Cresswell, 2017).
Feasibility – Slide 1
Resources for study:
Authorization: Permission or authorization for the study will be sought from the respective heads of the institutions
Access to resources: the research team will seek permission from the heads of each institution to access their records, databases, computers, and computers
Additional training: instrument certifications, data gathering, and reconnaissance
The potential risks that may emerge in the study include privacy breaches and negative mental or emotional outcomes on participants
These risks will be mitigated by ensuring that their records are kept anonymous
The study will benefit the participants by providing more insights into how they can improve their cross-cultural competence to enhance leadership and academic accomplishment
Feasibility – Slide 2
Study Alignment with Program (Identify Program of Study):
The study is aligned with the program goal of Doctor of Education in Organizational Leadership Emphasize in K12
The study is aligned with the goal of providing differentiated learning because it provides educators with insights into how they can recognize cultural differences in their classroom settings and tailor their instructions to meet each student’s distinct learning needs.
One potential obstacle is failure to commence the study at the required timeframe
Proper budgeting and developing a detailed research plan and timeline can address the problem
The study is feasible because it attempts to investigate an area that is largely unexplored. Additionally, its research instruments are simple to use
The next step in my study will include:
Step 1: Meeting all the ethical requirements
Step 2: Designing research instruments
Step 3: Identifying my research and data gathering team
Step 4: Gathering data
Step 5: Analyzing data
Design Definition Justification
(use /not use)
Qualitative Descriptive Refers to a type of design that comprehensively summarizes specific events experienced by individuals or groups.
A qualitative design that focuses on discovering the nature of specific events under investigations Provides an effective theoretical approach to qualitative research
Phenomenological Design that places emphases are put on lived experiences, including how people’s experiences become integrated with consciousness, and the implications of the situation (Poucher et al., 2020).
A study design hat focuses on understanding the core structures, essence, and effects of the experiences. It be applied to understand the lived experiences and academic performance of student leaders in culturally diverse schools according to the current state of cross-cultural cohesion and cooperation in the schools.
Narrative A research design that uses written or spoken words to gather data.
An approach that assesses the lives of individuals as told by their own stories. The process of analyzing long textual or verbal data may be challenging
Case Study A study design that is used to generate an in-depth, multi-faceted understanding of a complex phenomenon.
It is a research design that focuses on a particular context, which is specific. Case study is not appropriate as the research will sample data from different groups
Grounded Theory This is a research design that focuses on setting out to discover or construct theory from data.
A research method whose sole outcome is to develop a theory.
The study does not plan to develop a theory from data
The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study is to understand how cross-cultural lived experiences influence student leadership capacity and academic achievement, located at a high school in greater Orlando area, Florida.
The purpose of this qualitative study is to investigate the influence of culturally inclusive curriculum and co-curriculum activities and experiences on student leadership development and academic outcomes of the students in the selected 5 schools. This study will address the issue of student leadership and academic outcomes in culturally diverse schools by analyzing the correlation between culturally-inclusive curriculum and co-curriculum initiatives and student leadership and academic achievement thereby contributing to advancements in research on student leadership in diverse institutions. The study can be applied in schools and communities consisting of individuals from culturally diverse backgrounds to promote social cohesion in the community, effective student leadership behaviors, and improve student social and learning outcomes in learning institutions (Oplatka & Arar, 2016).
Population, Target Population, and Sample
Population Target Sample
All students in public or private schools in the US.
All students and teachers in academies, across all gender, ethnicity and age groups in the US.
The number of participants who will be interviewed is 15
The number of participants who will form part of the focus group is 20
All students and teachers in public schools that offer cross-culture curriculum or enrichment programs in Greater Orlando, Florida.
All students and teachers in academies, across all gender, ethnicity and age groups in public or private schools that offer cross-culture curriculum or enrichment programs in Greater Orlando, Florida.
Voice recording- 5
Interviews and Focus Groups
20-25 students and/or teachers.
The number of participants who will be interviewed is 15
The number of participants who will form part of the focus group is 20
Instrumentation and Data Sources
Data Sources #1
Data Source #2
Interviews will be used as the main methods of data gathering. The interviewees will be assessed in terms of their feelings towards the research topics (Poucher et al., 2020)
The main objective of the interview will be to gather qualitative information. This will be done by encouraging interviewees to exchange ideas and on their feelings and lived experiences Focus Groups
Focus groups will be implemented to compliment interviews. It is a qualitative method used to gain in-depth insights into the topic of investigation (Guest et al., 2017).
The focus groups will be employed to obtain data from a purposely elected group of individuals rather than from a statistically representative sample
The method will also be used to understand the sociocultural aspects of their lives.
This method will be used by determining and defining the key research objectives .
Thereafter, a list of questions that will be discussed in the focus groups will be developed.
Semi-structured interviews and observation will be used to gather nominal data for qualitative analysis. Semi-structured interviews are preferred since their framework makes it possible to address the main themes, and is not restricted to answering specific questions (Poucher et al., 2020). It also enables flexibility to a significant limit, which enables researchers to interactively respond to respondents’ answers thereby making it possible to develop themes and identify issues and patterns as they occur. The experiential type of interview will be used since it enables researchers to capture perceptions, feelings, and experiences of the respondents over the length of time that they have been in the culturally-diverse schools.
Data Collection Steps: Slide 1
Seeking permission from school administrators
Seeking license to use research Instruments
Participants will be given informed consent forms
Obtaining administrative guide and validation information on each data sources from owner/literature
Results of the field tests for qualitative studies
IRB Approval will be sought
Consent form from individual participants
Required permissions/approvals (prior to data collection)
Data will be collected from the 5 schools in Los Angeles County from teachers, administrators, and students. 15 students and 5 teachers from 5 different schools. Researchers will contact students and parents through school administrators and teachers and explain the need for and significance of the study. After obtaining permission from the schools, the researchers will seek IRB approval by explaining the nature of the study and how it aligned with ethical research practices, and why it is important. The administrators, teachers, and students will be informed about the study three months in advance so that they can adequately prepare, or decide on whether or not to participate.
Data Collection Steps: Slide 2
Sampling Strategy and Sample Selection
Sampling Strategy Description Purposive Sampling
Purposive sampling refers to the deliberate choice of participants due to the qualities that they possess.
This can be on the basis of their relevance to the study
Students, for example, can be deliberately selected Purposeful
It is a sampling procedure used for the identification and selection of information-rich participants
Sampling Steps Giving each member equal
Opportunity for representation
categorizing groups into strata
Sampling Selection Criteria Fishbowl sampling clustering
There are four separate slides that will comprise the data collection section in the Prospectus and the proposal.
These set of four slides are used in bullet format in the Prospectus. They then provide the outline for the Data Collection section in Chapter 3 in the Proposal.
This Slide: This second slide only discusses the sampling strategy and then the steps for the sampling process.
**Note: Do not alter the names on the slides, and do not change the order of the four data collection slides or the bullets within them. It is important to show the bullets in the order in which they would occur. **
Sampling Strategy Description: Citing an authoritative source define and describe each sampling strategy.
Sampling Steps: State the steps taken for the sampling process for each strategy.
Sampling Criteria: Identify the criteria for selecting your sample.
Some sampling strategies could be convenience, purposive, random, and snowball.
Even if only one sampling strategy will be used, identify “Plan B” and “Plan C” if the first plan falls through or does not provide the minimum sample size or enough data for qualitative analysis.
Data Collection Steps: Slide 3
Collecting the Data
Step 1: The authorities in the school will be contacted
Step 2:Permission will be sought for data gathering
Step 3: A date and time will be agreed for data collection
Step 4: Informed consent forms will be filled
Step 5: Interview questions will be administered on weekend to avoid learning disruptions
The process of gathering data will begin by contacting the authorities in the schools. Permission will also b gathered from students and parents through school administrators and teachers and explain the need for and significance of the study. After obtaining permission from the schools, the researchers will seek IRB approval by explaining the nature of the study and how it aligned with ethical research practices, and why it is important. The administrators, teachers, and students will be informed about the study three months in advance so that they can adequately prepare, or decide on whether or not to participate. Since the study is not intended to disrupt learning activities, participants will be expected to respond to the interview questionnaires on weekends. Observations will be made during indoor and outdoor classroom activities using cameras in classrooms, and direct observations in outdoor environments. For teachers, parents, and administrators, paper and pen face-to-face interviews will be appropriate. Secondary data will be collected from education offices and school administration and teacher inventories. Data from different participants will be compiled within one month after completion of the data-collection process.
Data Collection Steps: Slide 4
Data Management and Storage
Data Management and Storage
Data will be stored in protected information systems
Cloud backup will be provided to ensure that it is not lost or deleted
The data will be stored for more than one month. 3-7 years typical.
The data will be protected using information security methods, such as encryption, password authentication, and access controls
Data management and storage is one of the most important steps in facilitating an effective analysis. In this study, the data will be stored in protected information systems. Cloud backup will be provided to ensure that it is not lost or deleted, destroyed, or its integrity tampered with. Moreover, the data will be stored for more than a month. This will ensure that it can be accessed at any stage of the analysis process of verification purposes. Further, it will be protected using information security methods, such as encryption, password authentication, and physical access controls.
Data Analysis Steps: Slide 1
Data Analysis Steps
Listing all relevant expressions (Moustakas, 1994)
Reduction of experiences to invariant constituents (Moustakas, 1994)
Thematic clustering to create core themes (Moustakas, 1994)
Comparison of multiple data sources to validate invariant constituents (Moustakas, 1994)
Crafting of individual textual descriptions of participants
Construction of composite structural descriptions (Moustakas, 1994)
Synthesis of the texture and structure into an expression
After the data has been collected, it will be coded or arranged systematically by itemizing related nominal data in the same categories. Different themes will be identified, and thematic analysis will be done to interpret the observations. For instance, if one of the coded categories is leadership performance across all students, the subcategory in the list would be leadership performance among Caucasian, African-American, or Asian students. The implication is that it would be necessary to analyze and compare trends in different categories and subcategories. Validity will be determined by the deviation of the findings with the hypotheses, and whether or not the findings are consistent with standard limits for accuracy of the instruments used.
List of References
Include a fully APA-formatted reference for each citation used in the slides.
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cross-cultural environmental education research. Evaluation and Program planning, 73,
Esen, M., Bellibas, M. S., & Gumus, S. (2020). The evolution of le adership research in higher
education for two decades (1995-2014): A bibliometric and content analysis.
International Journal of Leadership in Education, 23(3), 259-273.
Genao, S. (2016). Culturally responsive pedagogy: Reflections on mentoring by educational
leadership candidates. Issues in Educational Research, 26(3), 431- 445. Retrieved from
McClean, S. T., Barnes, C. M., Courtright, S. H., & Johnson, R. E. (2019). Resetting the clock
on dynamic leader behaviors: A conceptual integration and agenda for future research.
Academy of Management Annals, 13(2), 479-508.
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group work tensions: Mixed student perspectives on the role of social
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Poucher, Z. A., Tamminen, K. A., Caron, J. G., & Sweet, S. N. (2020). Thinking through and
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