Special Topics Gangs Chapter 3 Lecture

©
2014 by P

earson H
igher E

ducation, Inc
U

e
S

add
e R

e
, N

e
Je

e
07458 A

R
R

e
e

ed

G
a

ng
s,

Pro
f. Bro

o
ks

Sum
m

e
r 2021

D
e

la
ne

y, A
m

e
ric

a
n Stre

e
t G

a
ng

s, 2e

C
h

a
p

te
r 3

Th
e

o
re

tic
a

l Exp
la

n
a

tio
ns o

f Stre
e

t G
a

n
g

s

2

The
w

a
y a

p
a

rtic
ula

r a
g

e
nc

y, g
o

ve
rning

b
o

d
y, o

r
c

o
m

m
unity vie

w
s a

g
a

ng
d

ire
c

tly im
p

a
c

ts the

p
ro

g
ra

m
s a

nd
typ

e
s o

f la
w

e
nfo

rc
e

m
e

nt use
d

in
re

la
tio

n to
the

m
.

A
theory should

:
Be

e
m

p
iric

a
lly ve

rifia
b

le

H
a

ve
the

a
b

ility to
e

xp
la

in o
r p

ro
vid

e
a

nd
a

c
c

o
unt fo

r
b

e
ha

vio
r

Be
c

o
m

e
a

p
p

lic
a

b
le

to
a

g
e

ne
ra

l se
t o

f re
la

te
d

p
he

no
m

e
na

Em
p

irica
lly verifia

b
le

e
fe

c
ie

nc
e

c

o
m

m
itm

e
nt to

sup
p

o
rt the

o
ry w

ith syste
m

a
tic

o

b
se

rva
tio

n a
nd

d
a

ta
c

o
lle

c
tio

n, kno
w

n a
s

re
se

a
rc

h.

The
o

ry Exp
la

na
tio

ns

3

A
tte

m
p

t to
link crim

e a
nd

d
elinq

uency to
g

enetics,
ra

ising
c

o
ntro

ve
rsia

l issue
s suc

h a
s the

c
o

nc
e

p
t o

f a

b
n c

im
ina

l
a

nd
he

g

g
e

i
n ha

c
im

e
i

he

re
d

ita
ry

H
a

ve
e

xa
m

ine
d

b
od

y typ
es a

s a
m

e
a

ns o
f

d
e

e
m

ining
a

n ind
i

id
a

l
c

ha
a

c
e

,
g

g
e

ing

ha

he

e
n

l
k

like
a

c
im

ina
l

Physiog
nom

y
invo

lve
s the

stud
y o

f fa
c

e
s a

nd
skulls

a
nd

o
the

r p
hysic

a
l fe

a
ture

s in o
rd

e
r to

re
ve

a
l a

n
ind

i
id

a
l

na
a

l d
i

ii
n

Bio
lo

g
ic

a
l The

o
rie

s

4

Bio
lo

g
ic

a
l The

o
rie

s

C
la

ssica
l

Positive

5

D
e

ve
lo

p
e

d
b

y C
esa

re
Becca

ria
, a

n Ita
lia

n
no

b
le

m
a

n (1738
1794), in his b

o
o

k O
n C

rim
e

s a
nd

Punishm

e
nt (1764)

Be
lie

ve
d

tha
t hum

a
ns w

e
re

free to choose
c

o
urse

s
o

f a
c

tio
n a

nd
tha

t the
y a

re
c

a
p

a
b

le
o

f m
a

king

ra
tiona

l d
ecisions

Je
re

m
y Be

ntha
m

(1748
1832), a

n Eng
lish

p
hilo

so
p

he
r, p

ro
m

o
te

d
the

id
e

a
o

f he
d

o
nism

hum
a

ns
seek

p
lea

sure a
nd

a
void

p
a

in in the
ir

a
c

tivitie
s

The
C

la
ssic

a
l Sc

ho
o

l

6

Ba
sic

Te
na

nts o
f the

C
la

ssic
a

l Sc
ho

o
l

Em
p

ha
sizes free w

ill choices a
nd

ra
tiona

l thoug
ht

C
oncerned

w
ith p

olitica
l structure a

nd
the w

a
y

in w
hich g

overnm
ent d

ea
ls w

ith its citizens

V
iew

s b
eha

vior a
s hed

onistic

C
oncerned

for the b
a

sic rig
hts of a

ll p
eop

le

Focuses on m
ora

lity a
nd

resp
onsib

ility

7

Po
sitivists sa

w
b

e
ha

vio
r a

s d
e

te
rm

ine
d

b
y a

n
ind

i
id

a
l

b
i

l
g

ic
a

l,
c

h
l

g
ic

a
l, a

nd

c
ia

l
tra

its.
P

ii
i

ie

e
d

ffe

nd
e

a

ic
k

a
nd

im
lie

d
ha

e

e
a

c
he

ne
e

d
e

d

find
he

c

a
e

,

d

e
te

rm
ina

nts, o
f suc

h so
c

ia
l p

a
tho

lo
g

y a
m

o
ng

ind

ivid
ua

ls.

The
Po

sitive
Sc

ho
o

l

8

C
om

p
a

re/C
ontra

st

Psyc
ho

lo
g

ic
a

l The
o

rie
s o

f D
e

linq
ue

nc
y

Intellig
ence-

Ba
sed

Theories

Persona
lity

Tra
it

Theories

Socia
l

Lea
rning

Theories

9

So
c

io
lo

g
ic

a
l The

o
ry

So
c

io
lo

g
ic

a
l the

o
rie

s a
re

g
ro

und
e

d
b

y the
b

e
lie

f
tha

t d
e

linq
ue

nc
y is c

a
use

d
b

y environm
enta

l
fa

ctors.

Socia
l D

isorg
a

niza
tion Theory (the C

hica
g

o School)
So

c
ia

l d
iso

rg
a

niza
tio

n the
o

ry d
e

ve
lo

p
e

d
fro

m
the

e

a
rly e

c
o

lo
g

ic
a

l re
se

a
rc

h o
n urb

a
n d

e
ve

lo
p

m
e

nt
c

o
nd

uc
te

d
b

y so
c

io
lo

g
ists a

t the
U

nive
rsity o

f
C

hic
a

g
o

d
uring

the
1920s a

nd
1930s.

10

D
iscuss the concentric circles id

entified
b

y the C
hica

g
o School.

So
c

io
lo

g
ic

a
l The

o
ry

Zo
n

e
5

Zo
n

e
4

Zo
n

e
3

Zo
n

e
2

Zo
n

e
1

11

In so
c

ia
lly d

iso
rg

a
nize

d
a

re
a

s, the
d

o
m

ina
nt va

lue
s a

nd

no
rm

s c
o

ntra
st w

ith the
ne

w
e

m
e

rg
ing

no
rm

s a
nd

va
lue

s.
Four elem

ents
o

f so
c

ia
l d

iso
rg

a
niza

tio
n:

So
c

io
lo

g
ic

a
l The

o
ry

Zo
n

e
3

Low

Econom
ic

Sta
tus

M
ixture of

d
ifferent
ethnic
g

roup
s

H
ig

hly
m

ob
ile

resid
ents

m
oving

in
a

nd
out of

the a
rea

D
isrup

ted

fa
m

ilies a
nd

b

roken
hom

es

12 So
c

io
lo

g
ic

a
l The

o
ry

M
e

M
d

e

f A
d

a
a

i
W

he
n ind

ivid
ua

ls a
re

fa
c

e
d

w
ith the

stra
in c

a
use

d

b
y a

no
m

ic
c

o
nd

itio
ns, the

y ha
ve

a
c

ho
ic

e
b

e
tw

e
e

n
five

m
o

d
e

s o
f a

d
a

p
ta

tio
n:

Ritua
lism

Innova
tion

C
onform

ity

Reb
ellion

Retrea
tism

13 So
c

io
lo

g
ic

a
l The

o
ry

A
lb

e
rt C

o
he

n id
e

ntifie
d

five
c

e
ntra

l c
ha

ra
c

te
ristic

s
o

f lo
w

e
r-c

la
ss d

e
linq

ue
nt g

a
ng

s, w
hic

h, w
he

n
c

o
m

b
ine

d
, c

o
m

p
rise

the
d

e
linq

ue
nt sub

c
ulture

:

N
e

g
a

tivism
M

a
lic

ious-
ne

ss
N

o
n-

utilita
ria

nism

G
ro

up

A
uto

no
m

y
Sho

rt-Te
rm

H

e
d

o
nism

14 V
a

ria
nts o

f So
c

ia
l C

o
ntro

l The
o

ry

Pe
rso

na
lity

O
rie

nte
d

C
o

nta
inm

ent
The

o
ry

Te
c

hniq
ues o

f
N

e
utra

lization
So

c
ia

l Bo
nd

15 So
c

ia
l Le

a
rning

/D
iffe

re
ntia

l Le
a

rning
The

o
ry

Ind
ivid

ua
ls b

e
c

o
m

e
d

e
linq

ue
nt no

t o
nly thro

ug
h

d
ire

c
t c

o
nta

c
t w

ith d
e

linq
ue

nts, b
ut a

lso
thro

ug
h

e
xp

o
sure

to
va

rio
us va

lue
s, b

e
lie

fs, a
nd

a
ttitud

e
s

tha
t a

re
sup

p
o

rtive
o

f c
rim

ina
l a

nd
d

e
linq

ue
nt a

c
ts

(e
.g

., thro
ug

h the
m

e
d

ia
a

nd
m

usic
).

D
ire

c
t a

sso
c

ia
tio

n w
ith d

e
via

nt o
the

rs, e
sp

e
c

ia
lly

o
ve

r a
p

e
rio

d
o

f tim
e

, is the
m

o
st like

ly w
a

y to
e

lic
it

d
e

linq
ue

nt b
e

ha
vio

r a
c

c
o

rd
ing

to
so

c
ia

l the
o

rists.

16

Youths lea
rn to b

ecom
e d

elinq
uent

throug
h three rela

ted
p

rocesses:

So
c

ia
l Le

a
rning

The
o

ry

Zo
n

e
3

A
cq

uisition

M
a

intena
nce

Instig
a

tion

17 La
b

e
ling

The
o

ry

D
o

e
s no

t e
xa

m
ine

ho
w

o
r w

hy p
e

o
p

le
b

e
c

o
m

e

d
e

linq
ue

nts a
nd

c
rim

ina
ls; ra

the
r, it c

o
nc

e
ntra

te
s o

n
the

e
ffe

c
t o

f b
e

ing
la

b
e

le
d

a
d

e
linq

ue
nt o

r c
rim

ina
l

Fre
d

e
ric

k Thra
she

r
Fra

nk Ta
nne

nb
a

um

18 La
b

e
ling

The
o

ry

W
he

n a
n ind

ivid
ua

l c
o

ntinua
lly re

c
e

ive
s ne

g
a

tive

fe
e

d
b

a
c

k fro
m

sig
nific

a
nt o

the
rs a

nd
the

n b
e

g
ins to

a

c
c

e
p

t the
ne

g
a

tive
la

b
e

l, a
se

lf-fulfilling
p

ro
p

he
c

y
ha

s b
e

e
n c

re
a

te
d

.

Be
c

ke
r

Q
uinne

y

©
2014 by P

earson H
igher E

ducation, Inc
U

e
S

add
e R

e
, N

e
Je

e
07458 A

R
R

e
e

ed

The
fo

llo
w

ing
c

rim
e

a
nd

d
e

linq
ue

nc
y the

o
rie

s a
p

p
ly to

g
a

ng
s:

b
io

lo
g

ic
a

l a
nd

p
syc

ho
lo

g
ic

a
l e

xp
la

na
tio

ns a
nd

the
tra

d
itio

na
l

so
c

io
lo

g
ic

a
l the

o
rie

s: so
c

ia
l d

iso
rg

a
niza

tio
n (C

hic
a

g
o

Sc
ho

o
l),

a
no

m
ie

/ stra
in, sub

c
ulture

/so
c

ia
l b

o
nd

, so
c

ia
l

le
a

rning
/d

iffe
re

ntia
l le

a
rning

, a
nd

la
b

e
ling

.

C
H

A
PTER SU

M
M

A
RY

Psyc
ho

lo
g

ic
a

l the
o

rie
s o

f d
e

linq
ue

nc
y sta

rt w
ith the

p
re

m
ise

tha
t

the
re

a
re

ind
ivid

ua
l d

iffe
re

nc
e

s in inte
llig

e
nc

e
, p

e
rso

na
lity, a

nd

le
a

rning
.

So
c

io
lo

g
ic

a
l the

o
rie

s a
re

g
ro

und
e

d
b

y the
b

e
lie

f tha
t g

a
ng

fo

rm
a

tio
n a

nd
p

a
rtic

ip
a

tio
n a

re
the

re
sult o

f so
c

ia
l fa

c
to

rs.

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