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Terrorism and Homeland Security, 9e

CHAPTER 2
Jonathan R. White

Copyright © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

Learning Objectives, Part 1
• Explain the value of practical criminology for

law enforcement and security forces.
• List the differences between terrorists and

ordinary criminals.
• Explain the importance of radicalization and

alienation.
• Summarize two recent case studies of

radicalization.
• Describe the opposing views about prison

radicalization.
2

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Learning Objectives, Part 2
• Summarize the controversy regarding the

use of the concept of radicalization.
• Identify three different types of terrorism.
• Define lone wolf terrorism.
• Explain the ways small and large groups

use terrorism.
• Describe the manner in which guerrillas

and insurgents use terrorism.

3

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Criminology
• Criminology as applied to terrorism looks

at prevention and apprehension.
• Terrorists commit crimes as they struggle

for a cause; they sets them apart from
ordinary street criminals.

• As first responders, law enforcement
personnel must recognize the differences
between typical criminal behavior and
terrorist activity.

4

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Practical Behavioral Differences

Terrorists
1. Focus their actions toward a

goal
2. Are dedicated to a cause
3. Rarely cooperate with

officials because they do not
wish to betray their cause

4. Tend to attack
5. Strike against targets after

careful planning
6. Prepare for and rehearse

their operations

Criminals
1. Are unfocused
2. Are not devoted to crime as a

philosophy
3. Will make deals to avoid

punishment
4. Usually run when confronted

with force
5. Strike when the opportunity

to do so is present
6. Rarely train for crime

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Radicalization and Alienation
• As with other areas of terrorism, the areas

of radicalization and alienation are fraught
with differing views and suggestions for
research.

• Researchers will obtain more fruitful
results by examining militant ideology and
finding the concepts that are shown to
attract followers.

6

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Research Criticized
The idea that research in radicalization and
alienation will produce valuable knowledge
is debated.

– No general consensus about the definition of
radicalization.

• Term is utilized in a variety of different contexts.

Suggested that more beneficial results
would be gained through the examination of
militant ideology and concepts that attract
followers.

7

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Research in Group Processes
A number of researchers believe members
of terrorist groups go through decision-
making processes as they are being
radicalized.

– The general knowledge of radicalization is
incomplete.

8

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Path and Routes
• Horgan believes researchers should

search for the “routes to terrorism.”
• Horgan is concerned with:

– The psychological processes that lead people
to terrorist groups.

– The issues that keep them in the group.
– The support for people who want to leave.

9

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Sageman’s Model
Radicalization is a six-step framework.

– Alienated young man
– Meets other alienated young men and form

bond
– Groups gravitate toward religion
– Religion interpreted in militant terms
– Militant group meets terrorist contact
– Militants join terrorists as a group decision

10

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Cases of Radicalization
Individual cases in the U.S.:

– Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab
• Destroy a Northwest airliner as it entered American

airspace.
– James W. von Brunn

• Shooting in the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum
in Washington, D.C.

– Omar Hammami – Muslim father and
Christian mother – identity conflict

• His identity conflict ended when he embraced a
violent, intolerant form of Islam to become a
commander in Al Shabaab.

11

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Commonalities in Radicalization
Using previous three individuals – several common
forms of behavior.

– First all three men all came from well-to-do, middle-
class environments.

• The New York Times reports that most international attacks
against the U.S. in the 21st Century have come from well-
educated terrorists from the middle class.

– Second, all three men became deeply angered and
filled with moral indignation.

• Alienated from mainstream thought as they expressed anger,
and they sought to address their situations by doing
something meaningful.

– Lastly, there was some type of event that triggered
their final decision to take violent action.

12

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Individual Radicalization
Evidence suggests radicalization is not
always a group process.

– At the least, it involves individual reflection
whether a group plays a role or not.

Research indicates individual psychological
and sociological factors create the
framework for interpreting reality.

13

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Groups in Prison
• Recent reports suggest that groups are

being radicalized in prison.
• A leader often targets selected prisoners

or dominates new inmates using
intimidation to force them until they join
the group.
– Mark Hamm maintains recruitment is similar

to procedures used by street gangs.

14

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Questioning Prison Radicalization

• Many terrorists have been in prison, but
there is scant evidence that they were
radicalized within the walls.

• Exposure to radical theology was the
most common denominator in their
decision to engage in violence.

• Terrorists should be separated from the
general population to eliminate their
influence.

15

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Rejecting the Term
• Some scholars question the value of the term.
• Others vehemently reject it.
• From the perspective of practical criminology,

some practitioners believe that research in
radicalization and alienation will produce
valuable knowledge.

• Neither scholars nor practitioners are quite sure
about the meaning of radicalization.

16

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Models of Terrorism
• Three models represent general trends

from 1945 to the present: (1) Lone Wolf,
(2) Small group, (3) Tactics of
insurgencies and guerrilla movements

• Models help to explain the evolution and
practice of contemporary terrorism.

• They embody the philosophy behind
particular types of terrorist movements.

17

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Lone Wolf, Part 1
Religion helps to produce the lone-wolf
avenger:

– A person who has a particular ideology but
isn’t part of a group

An individual lone-wolf avenger needs to
find some type of justification for his or her
actions, and religion provides the perfect
path.

18

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Lone Wolf, Part 2
Lone-wolf avengers have a special,
narcissistic relationship with their deities.

– They create a god in their own image.
– They become the ultimate loners—they are

the most difficult type of terrorist to deter or
detain.

19

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Small Group Terrorism
• The model for modern urban terrorism

was intellectually championed by Frantz
Fanon.

• He produced two works as a result of his
Algerian experiences:
– The Wretched of the Earth (1982)
– A Dying Colonialism (1965)

20

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Frantz Fanon, Part 1
• Western powers have dehumanized non-

Western people by destroying their
cultures and replacing them with Western
values.

• Decolonization was destined to be a
violent process.

• Achieving freedom was inherently violent.

21

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Frantz Fanon, Part 2
• Guerrilla warfare and individual acts of

terrorism as tools of revolution.
• Fanon argued that terrorism should not be

used against the native population in
general.

• His proposed two targets for terrorism:
– White settlers
– Native middle class

22

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Carlos Marighella
• Brazilian legislator
• Nationalistic Communist Party leader
• Revolutionary terrorist
• Designed practical guides for terrorism

that have been employed for more than
40 years

• Wanted to move violence from the
countryside to the city

23

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Guerrilla Warfare
• The Cuban Revolution popularized

guerrilla warfare throughout the world.
• Guerrilla revolutions based on the Cuban

experience are typified by three phases:
– Phase one begins with isolated groups.
– Phase two merges groups into guerrilla

columns.
– Phase three brings columns together in a

conventional army.

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Insurgency, Part 1
• Focus on insurgency due to a small group

of officers who began looking at military
failures during the Vietnam War

• Impossible to fight insurgencies with
military tactics designed for terrorism or
guerilla war

25

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Insurgency, Part 2
• At the end of the Cold War, various

insurgencies began growing in the
vacuums left by the superpowers.

• Technology and weapons helped many
insurgencies grow.

• New political atmosphere made the rise of
organizations like al Qaeda possible.

26

Copyright © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

Chapter Take-Aways
• Theories of terrorism are important, but law

enforcement, intelligence, and military forces are also
served by developing a practical understanding of the
type of terrorism they are facing.

• Radicalization is the process of adopting violent
extremist views and acting them out with terrorist
actions. Many social scientists believe this is caused by
alienation.

• Three types of terrorism involve lone wolves, small
groups, and large groups. Lone wolf violence seems to
be increasing and some groups encourage it.

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