Human Development
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Human Development
Human beings grow and develop through different stages in life. The human development can be classified regarding age groups. Different age groups have different emotional behaviors, physical states, cognitive status, language abilities, and their social characteristics are also different. Examining the traits of people through the different stages of human development is necessary since it helps one to understand how people behave and the reasons for their behavior. At the individual level, it is also necessary to understand the different stages of human development so that one can understand the different changes in their body, feelings and also social relationships (Armstrong, 2012). Parents and counselors are also supposed to understand these different stages in life. This is to allow them to offer the necessary guidance to people who are in these different stages. Every stage in human life has its problem, and human beings require assistance for them to tackle their problems effectively. The various people who will be examined are from the ages two years, 16 years, and fifty years. These people will be examined concerning their physical state, cognitive state, language ability, and their social/emotional state.


Children of 2 years are toddlers. Different toddlers have different traits, but there are general traits which can be used to identify them. Toddlers show important emotional, psychological, physical, and language capability traits. Some of these characteristics have been described below:

Physical State

The physical status of the child at this stage varies. The toddlers of two years can stand and walk. This means that the muscle has started to develop. They gain physical strength which enables them to walk. Some of them can even to run at slow pace. Different children in this state indicate different physical status. Those who have problems with their physical status are unable to walk. At this stage, the parents should be very careful with their children because the child can just walk to areas where they are not supposed to be. There are also various accidents which occur to the child since it’s a learning process.
At the stage of two years, the child is taught on how to use the toilet. The child also wants to learn about how they can be able to put on their clothes. The children physical status is therefore weak but ready to learn. The child at this stage will go climbing. The child could be seen climbing small structures and even trying to go up the staircase. It is, therefore, necessary for the toddler looked after very keenly. The child also wants to play where they want to kick balls and also, they will have the physical strength to kick other children. The physical energy of a two-year-old baby is therefore too much, and they need to spend it on physical activities.

Cognitive State

The cognitive state of a child of two years is very interesting and very dynamic. The child who has no problem with cognition is considered to be an active learner. Toddlers are always ready and eager to learn new things. The thinking of the toddlers is not developed, and hence it depends on their parents and guardians to assist them in learning. This is because children consider their parents and guardians as their role models. The trust level of these children is also high. They trust their parents more than anyone else. They also don’t trust strangers that easily. At this stage, the thinking of the children is developed through learning. This is the reason why the parents are expected to be very careful with what their children see, hear and even experience. This is because they are very eager to learn things and if they have bad experiences, it will be hard for them to forget.
At this stage, the toddlers try to learn right from wrong. They expect their parents and guardians to help them differentiate between right and wrong. This helps to build their behavior. As a result of the need to learn, children at this stage have many questions which sometimes are boring. They believe that anyone who is older and who looks like their parents know everything and is always right. Toddlers will, therefore, ask many questions. Toddlers also like playing, and they learn through play. When they are playing, they will in most cases argue with other children on some issues. They will also learn through for example painting, and they will also learn different colors. Play activities are therefore very necessary when developing the cognitive state of children. Parents are also expected to be careful since, through the behavioral theory, people develop their behavior through learning. What the children learn through these activities will, therefore, dictate their behavior.
The children, therefore, start to understand concepts which include time and also differences. For example, the children will understand that there are man and woman, day and night, and big and small. All these help the child differentiate various items. Since the children are also involved in a lot of activities, they identify different tools and items. They, therefore, recognize different shapes, colors, and objects. In most cases, children at this stage will relate different things to different shapes and colors. For example, when they talk about something sweet, they will relate it two candies. These connections and relations help the children to improve their thinking and also develop their comprehension (Narváez, 2012). They will also relate shapes to things they love for example they will relate circular shape or round shape with apples or oranges. So, in some cases, one will find a child saying, “is apple as round as an orange?”

Language Ability

The ability to speak for toddlers is not developed. They are not able to speak effectively. In most cases, they use two to three-word sentences. It is very hard for these kids to communicate. In most cases, the language ability of the children is very poor that only their parents understand what they say since they have spent much time with them. When the children try to communicate to another person who they have not spent much time together, the communication is hard. They are unable to express themselves since they have no language capability. In most cases, toddlers communicate through gestures. Some will also communicate through crying or behaving in a manner which sends a certain message.
Children at this stage will try to construct sentences using broken language. Their sentence construction is also very poor. Toddlers are at a learning stage where they mostly repeat what they hear. Parents also teach them speaking through making them repeat after them. This ensures that their language capability develops. The toddlers also try to explain their daily activities to their parents or guardians. Since the children are involved in play activities, they explain their daily events hence they try to construct sentences. This helps to develop the language and communication ability of the kids.

Social/Emotional State

This stage is very critical for the emotional development of the child. This is mainly because the children are unable to express their emotions and feelings through words, their emotions are therefore expressed through frustration and anger. Some of the children are embarrassed, but they are unable to express. At this stage, children are also ready to learn about the feelings of other people. They want to interact with other children, and they want to understand them. Through the interactions, there are emotional experiences which are developed. In other cases, other children will hurt them, and they need to be guided through this emotional development (Kottler, Montgomery, 2011). Toddlers also need to be guided on their manners. They have to be taught how they should relate to others. At this stage, they are taught on the various behaviors which they are not expected to have. For example, they are taught that it’s wrong to fight with other children and it is also inappropriate to use bad words on other people. The social state of the children also includes wanting to play so much. They usually play with their pets and even their parents. They are very social at this stage.


Physical State

At this stage, one is at the adolescent level. Their physical characteristics are fully developed. The height is around five feet. If one is a male, their make traits are fully developed, and they feel like they are men. For the ladies, their lady physical components are also fully developed. This means that each one of them knows themselves regarding male and female. The feminine and masculine characteristics are evident. At this stage, one has pubic hair and for the male adolescents have a deep voice. This change of pubic hair and deep voice is a sign of growth for the adolescents. Various physical changes have taken in the body. At this stage, those who love sports and Olympics are involved in those physical activities. There is also the physical development of the brain of these adolescents. The size of the brain does not necessarily change, but there are significant changes in the brain, for example, the prefrontal cortex continues to develop improving the capability of planning, sustaining attention and reasoning (Rayner, 2014). There are therefore effective changes in the physical brain structure.
There is also broadening of shoulders for the men and also the ladies develop boobs. This means that signs of one being a woman and a man are visible. Some of the boys even develop hair on their chin and chest. For the ladies, there are also changes with menstrual periods. They experience menstruation which means that there is a possibility of them getting pregnant. At this stage, people are concerned about their physical appearance. The facial appearance for the ladies is very critical, and for the men, their height becomes a critical component of their physical state. They, therefore, identify themselves with these physical characteristics. For the boys and ladies, they go to the gym so that they can build their physical appearance and ensure that they look good and appealing. The physical strength at this stage is very good for those who are healthy hence strong physical state.

Cognitive State

The level of comprehension is very high. At this stage, the young adolescents are open to lean and its easier for them to learn. The thinking of the young adolescents is high, and they can think effectively. However, their cognition is sometimes overtaken by their emotions or directed by their emotions (Louw, Ede, Louw, Botha, 2015). External factors affect the thinking of these people and mostly their peers. At this stage, the adolescents have increased the ability to understand and reason. Their reasoning has been improved over time. There is intensive development in their reasoning. At this stage, adolescents can develop critical and creative thinking skills. Their cognition is therefore very high.
Adolescents also prefer active learning and reasoning to passive learning. As a result, they like engaging their peers in debates and in discussing on various topics. They are intrigued by the trendy topics and sharing their ideas with their peers. They also learn from one another. In most cases, the adolescents walk with friends who they think that they have the same reasoning and cognition. The differences are evident among groups of adolescents. The adolescents move from concrete logical operations, and they gain the ability to analyze, test hypotheses, synthesize data and even think reflectively. They can deduce facts and make conclusions which are informed. At this level, they are also able to appreciate sarcasm, irony and high level and complex humor.

Language Ability

At this point, the language of a person has fully developed. This is mainly because the young adolescents have been able to go through education which directs and which teaches on language. Some of the adolescents can speak more than one language fluently. They can construct sentences which can be easily understood. The language is well developed that they can engage in meaningful discussions with their peers and also with their seniors. The language ability is also considered to be very essential to the relationships of the adolescent with their peers. The ability to use complex language and vocabularies help one to be effective in communication and relations with others.

Social/Emotional State

The social state of adolescents is important in their development, and it plays a large role in their lives. This is because there is need at this stage to belong to a certain group of people. Peer pressure is also very critical at this stage. The adolescents want to be identified with celebrities and certain prominent people. The emotions of the adolescents are therefore at a critical point where they are confused, and they wanted to find their identity. At this stage, there exist conflicts within families. This is because the loyalty of these adolescents is most directly to their friends and peers. Peer pressure us one of the major problems which the young adolescents face. Most of the adolescents become furious, and they don’t want to follow the advice of their parents. Some of these adolescents get depressed as a result of their physical appearance. The physical appearance affects their emotions and social interactions. At this stage, they spend most of their time ensuring that they look good and appealing to others. They mostly seek acceptance. There is the attraction to the people of the opposite sex and the need to have relationships. These relationships are hurting in many occasions, and they lead to an emotional breakdown.


Physical state

At this stage, aging becomes a problem for the middle-aged adults. Their physical strength starts to depreciate. There are various physical and health complications which are related to this age. The eyesight loses its ability to adjust effectively to light, different object and even distance. At this age, the middle adults are at a higher risk of eye problems including glaucoma. There are also problems with their hearing. Some are unable to hear unless someone speaks with a louder voice. There are also issues with the skin of the middle-aged adults. Wrinkles develop, and their skin looks dry. In most cases, the fat of these people accumulates around the stomach areas. There are therefore evident changes to their physical status. Some of the middle adults are also unable to walk, and they need help to support themselves. They have problems with their feet hence are unable to walk effectively and also over long distances. Their strength is low. For women, they go through menopause stage which means they are unable to get pregnant.

Cognitive State

At this stage, the mind of the middle-aged people is fully developed. They have acquired experience over a very long time. They, therefore, have accumulated skills, knowledge, information, expertise, and strategies throughout their lifetime. They are therefore able to make wise decisions based on their long-term experiences. Their decisions are not based on emotions hence they base their decisions on facts. Their intelligence is there considered to be very good at this stage. However, at this stage, the middle adults can comprehend complex issues, and they are unable to divide their attention. Their memory is also affected, and they mostly forget things. Their ability to solve some problems also reduces. They usually like slowly going through facts, but they are very good at concluding life issues. This is the reason they are depended for advice.

Language Ability

At this stage, the language ability is good. The adults can communicate effectively, and they can communicate their ideas and opinions effectively. However, as one gets older, their ability to communicate faster reduces. The language used by the middle-aged adults is more formal. They usually use good grammar since they are experienced, and they have been able to learn throughout their life.

Social/Emotional State

The middle adulthood is mostly covered by work options and the need to create strong family ties. Middle adults are very keen to appreciate their families. They hold their families so dear. At this stage, the emotional is also affected if one has not been able to achieve his or her life goals. Leaving a legacy is also an emotional crisis which affects the middle-aged adults. Some are also emotionally affected by the problem of retirement. If one has not planned for their retirement they end getting worried and emotionally depressed (Australia, 2016). The social life of some is affected as they try to work hard to achieve their goals. Some are also socially affected since they are left alone at home where spouses die, and children leave home. The middle adulthood social and emotional state, therefore, depends on many factors.

Armstrong, T. (2012). The human odyssey: navigating the twelve stages of life. New York Lewes, East Sussex, England: Sterling Pub. Distributed in the UK by GMC Distribution Services.
Australia, C. (2016). Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy. Pacific Grove, CA: Cengage Learning US.
Kottler, J. & Montgomery, M. (2011). Theories of counseling and therapy: an experiential approach. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.
Louw, D., Ede, D., Louw, A. & Botha, A. (2015). Human development. Cape Town: Kagiso Tertiary.
Narváez, D. (2012). Evolution, early experience and human development: from research to practice and policy. Oxford New York: Oxford University Press.
Rayner, E. (2014). Human development: an introduction to the psychodynamics of growth, maturity, and ageing. London New York, NY: Routledge.

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