Project Management

Project Management

Adrienne Watt


V I C TO R I A , B .C .

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© 2014 Adrienne Watt

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Accessibility Statement vi

About the Book viii

Introduction x

Preface xi

1. Project Management: Past and Present 1

2. Project Management Overview 11

3. The Project Life Cycle (Phases) 24

4. Framework for Project Management 27

5. Stakeholder Management 42

6. Culture and Project Management 54

7. Project Initiation 57

8. Overview of Project Planning 73

9. Scope Planning 76

10. Project Schedule Planning 91

11. Resource Planning 105

12. Budget Planning 132

13. Procurement Management 147

14. Quality Planning 158

15. Communication Planning 170

16. Risk Management Planning 176

17. Project Implementation Overview 187

18. Project Completion 189

19. Celebrate! 194

Appendix 1: Project Management PowerPoints 195

Appendix 2: Chapter Questions 196

Appendix 3: Chapter Audio Files 204

About the Author 205

Versioning History 206

List of Links by Chapter for Print 208

Accessibility Statement

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2nd Edition vii

Contact us

About the Book

About the Book

Project Management by Adrienne Watt and published by BCcampus Open Education is a remix and
adaptation of the following works:

• 100 Percent Rule by Pabipedia licensed under © CC BY-SA (Attribution-ShareAlike).

• Communication Plans by Inte6160 Wiki licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0

• Decision Matrix Method and Project Charter by Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia licensed
under CC BY-SA (Attribution-ShareAlike).

• Gantt Chart by Wikipedia licensed under CC BY-SA (Attribution-ShareAlike).

• How to Build Relationships with Stakeholders by Erin Palmer licensed under CC BY (Attri-

• Planning a Project by OpenLearn Labspace licensed under Creative Commons Attribution
3.0 Licence.

• Project Decelerators – Lack of Stakeholder Support by Jose Solera licensed under CC BY

• Project Management by Merrie Barron and Andrew Barron licensed under CC BY (Attribu-

• Project Management for Instructional Designers by Amado, M., Ashton, K., Ashton, S.,
Bostwick, J., Clements, G., Drysdale, J., Francis, J., Harrison, B., Nan, V., Nisse, A., Randall,
D., Rino, J., Robinson, J., Snyder, A., Wiley, D., & Anonymous licensed under Creative
Commons Attribution 3.0 Licence.

• Project Management for Skills for All Careers by Project Management Open Resources and
TAP-a-PM licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Licence.

• Project Management from Simple to Complex by Russel Darnall, John Preston, Eastern
Michigan University licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Licence.

• Project Management/PMBOK/Human Resources Management and Development Coopera-
tion Handbook/How do we manage the human resources of programmes and projects?/Man-
age the Project Team by Wikibooks licensed under CC BY-SA (Attribution-ShareAlike).

• Project Management/PMBOK/Scope Management and Development Cooperation Handbook/
Designing and Executing Projects/Detailed Planning or design stage by Wikibooks licensed
under © CC BY (Attribution).

• Resource Management and Resource Leveling by Wikipedia licensed under CC BY-SA


How to Build Relationships with Stakeholders

• Work Breakdown Structure by Wikipedia licensed under CC BY-SA (Attribution-Share-

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2nd Edition ix





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People have been undertaking projects since the earliest days of organized human activity. The hunting
parties of our prehistoric ancestors were projects. Large complex projects such as the pyramids and the
Great Wall of China were also projects. Even something as simple as creating a dinner is considered a
project. We use the term “project” frequently in our daily conversations. This book covers the basics of
project management. This includes the process of initiation, planning, execution, control, and closeout
that all projects share.



The primary purpose of this text is to provide an open source textbook that covers most project manage-
ment courses. The material in the textbook was obtained from a variety of sources. All the sources are
found in the reference section at the end of each chapter. I expect, with time, the book will grow with
more information and more examples.

I welcome any feedback that would improve the book. If you would like to add a section to the book,
please let me know.


1. Project Management: Past and Present

Careers Using Project Management Skills

Skills learned by your exposure to studying project management can be used in most careers as well as
in your daily life. Strong planning skills, good communication, ability to implement a project to deliver
the product or service while also monitoring for risks and managing the resources will provide an edge
toward your success. Project managers can be seen in many industry sectors including agriculture and
natural resources; arts, media, and entertainment; building trades and construction; energy and utilities;
engineering and design; fashion and interiors; finance and business; health and human services; hos-
pitality, tourism, and recreation; manufacturing and product development; public and private education
services; public services; retail and wholesale trade; transportation; and information technology.

Below we explore various careers and some of the ways in which project management knowledge can
be leveraged.

Business Owners

Business owners definitely need to have some project management skills. With all successful businesses,
the product or service being delivered to the customer meets their needs in many ways. The product or
service is of the quality desired, the costs are aligned with what the consumer expected, and the timeli-
ness of the product or service meets the deadline for the buyer of that item.

The pillars of project management are delivering a product/service within schedule, cost, scope, and
quality requirements. Business owners need planning, organizing, and scoping skills and the ability to
analyze, communicate, budget, staff, equip, implement, and deliver.

Understanding the finances, operations, and expenses of the business are among the skills that project
managers learn and practice. Some businesses may focus more on accounting, providing financial
advice, sales, training, public relations, and actuary or logistician roles. Business owners may own a
travel agency or provide hospitality. Business owners could be managing a storefront or a location in
their town’s marketplace.

Example: Restaurant Owner/Manager

Restaurant managers are responsible for the daily operations of a restaurant that prepares and serves
meals and beverages to customers. Strong planning skills, especially coordinating with the various
departments (kitchen, dining room, banquet operations, food service managers, vendors providing the
supplies) ensure that customers are satisfied with their dining experience. Managers’ abilities to recruit
and retain employees, and monitor employee performance and training ensure quality with cost contain-
ment. Scheduling in many aspects, not only the staff but also the timing of the food service deliveries, is
critical in meeting customer expectations.

Risk management is essential to ensure food safety and quality. Managers monitor orders in the
kitchen to determine where delays may occur, and they work with the chef to prevent these delays. Legal
compliance is essential in order for the restaurant to stay open, so restaurant managers direct the clean-


ing of the dining areas and the washing of tableware, kitchen utensils, and equipment. They ensure the
safety standards and legality, especially in serving alcohol. Sensitivity and strong communication skills
are needed when customers have complaints or employees feel pressured because more customers arrive
than predicted.

Financial knowledge is needed for the soundness of running the restaurant, especially tracking special
projects, events, and costs for the various menu selections. Catering events smoothly can be an outcome
of using project plans and the philosophy of project management. The restaurant manager or the execu-
tive chef analyzes the recipes to determine food, labour, and overhead costs; determines the portion size
and nutritional content of each serving; and assigns prices to various menu items, so that supplies can be
ordered and received in time.

Planning is the key for successful implementation. Managers or executive chefs need to estimate food
needs, place orders with distributors, and schedule the delivery of fresh food and supplies. They also
plan for routine services (equipment maintenance, pest control, waste removal) and deliveries, including
linen services or the heavy cleaning of dining rooms or kitchen equipment, to occur during slow times
or when the dining room is closed. A successful restaurant relies on many skills that the project manage-
ment profession emphasizes.

Outsourcing Services

Figure 1.1: Sample status chart, which is typical with the use of a red-yellow-green

Many businesses explore outsourcing for certain services. Below is a sample status and project plan that
reflects the various tasks needed for a project. A review of finances, the importance of communicating
to stakeholders, and the importance of time, cost, schedule, scope, and quality are reflected. Many com-
panies may use these steps in their business. These plans show the need for the entire team to review the
various proposals to choose the best plan. Figure 1.1 represents a sample project status report.

1. Project Management: Past and Present 2

Example: Construction Managers

Construction managers plan, direct, coordinate, and budget a wide variety of residential, commercial,
and industrial construction projects including homes, stores, offices, roads, bridges, wastewater treat-
ment plants, schools, and hospitals. Strong scheduling skills are essential for this role. Communication
skills are often used in coordinating design and construction processes, teams executing the work, and
governance of special trades (carpentry, plumbing, electrical wiring) as well as government representa-
tives for the permit processes.

A construction manager may be called a project manager or project engineer. The construction man-
ager ensures that the project is completed on time and within budget while meeting quality specifica-
tions and codes and maintaining a safe work environment. These managers create project plans in which
they divide all required construction site activities into logical steps, estimating and budgeting the time
required to meet established deadlines, usually utilizing sophisticated scheduling and cost-estimating
software. Many use software packages such as Microsoft Project® or Procure® or online tools like Base-
Camp®. Most construction projects rely on spreadsheets for project management. Procurement skills
used in this field include acquiring the bills for material, lumber for the house being built, and more.
Construction managers also coordinate labor, determining the needs and overseeing their performance,
ensuring that all work is completed on schedule.

Values including sustainability, reuse, LEED-certified building, use of green energy, and various
energy efficiencies are being incorporated into today’s projects with an eye to the future. Jennifer Rus-
sell, spoke about project management and global sustainability” at the 2011 Silicon Valley Project Man-
agement Institute (PMI) conference. She informed the attendees of the financial, environmental, and
social areas in expanding the vision of project management with the slide in Figure 1.2. These values are
part of the PMI’s code of ethics and professionalism. By adhering to this code, project managers include
in their decisions the best interests of society, the safety of the public, and enhancement of the environ-

3 2nd Edition

Figure 1.2: In addition to considering the cost, scope, and schedule of a project, a project manager should work to
ensure the project is socially responsible, environmentally sound, and economically viable.

Creative Services

Creative service careers include graphic artists, curators, video editors, gaming managers, multimedia
artists, media producers, technical writers, interpreters, and translators. These positions use project man-
agement skills, especially in handling the delivery channel and meeting clients’ requirements.

Let us look at one example, graphic artists, to understand and identify some of the project management
skills that aid in this career.

Example: Graphic Artists

Graphic artists plan, analyze, and create visual solutions to communication problems. They use many
skills found in project management, especially communications. They work to achieve the most effective
way to get messages across in print and electronic media. They emphasize their messages using colour,
type, illustration, photography, animation, and various print and layout techniques. Results can be seen
in magazines, newspapers, journals, corporate reports, and other publications. Other deliverables from
graphic artists using project management skills include promotional displays, packaging, and market-
ing brochures supporting products and services, logos, and signage. In addition to print media, graphic
artists create materials for the web, TV, movies, and mobile device apps.

Initiation in project management can be seen in developing a new design: determining the needs of
the client, the message the design should portray, and its appeal to customers or users. Graphic designers
consider cognitive, cultural, physical, and social factors in planning and executing designs for the target

1. Project Management: Past and Present 4

audience, very similar to some of the dynamics a project manager considers in communicating with var-
ious project stakeholders. Designers may gather relevant information by meeting with clients, creative
staff, or art directors; brainstorming with others within their firm or professional association; and per-
forming their own research to ensure that their results have high quality and they can manage risks.

Graphic designers may supervise assistants who follow instructions to complete parts of the design
process. Therefore scheduling, resource planning, and cost monitoring are pillars of project management
seen in this industry. These artists use computer and communications equipment to meet their clients’
needs and business requirements in a timely and cost-efficient manner.


“Educator” is a broad term that can describe a career in teaching, maybe being a lecturer, a professor, a
tutor, or a home-schooler. Other educators include gurus, mullahs, pastors, rabbis, and priests. Instruc-
tors also provide vocational training or teach skills like learning how to drive a car or use a computer.
Educators provide motivation to learn a new language or showcase new products and services. Educators
use project management skills including planning and communication.

Let us look at teachers, since we all have had teachers, and see if we can recognize the project man-
agement skills that are demonstrated in this profession.

Example: Teachers

Some teachers foster the intellectual and social development of children during their formative years;
other teachers provide knowledge, career skill sets, and guidance to adults. Project management skills
that teachers exhibit include acting as facilitators or coaches and communicating in the classroom and
in individual instruction. Project managers plan and evaluate various aspects of a project; teachers plan,
evaluate, and assign lessons; implement these plans; and monitor each student’s progress similar to the
way a project manager monitors and delivers goods or services. Teachers use their people skills to man-
age students, parents, and administrators. The soft skills that project managers exercise can be seen in
teachers who encourage collaboration in solving problems by having students work in groups to discuss
and solve problems as a team.

Project managers may work in a variety of fields with a broad assortment of people, similar to teachers
who work with students from varied ethnic, racial, and religious backgrounds. These teachers must
have awareness and understanding of different cultures.

Teachers in some schools may be involved in making decisions regarding the budget, personnel, text-
books, curriculum design, and teaching methods, demonstrating skills that a project manager would pos-
sess such as financial management and decision making.


Engineers apply the principles of science and mathematics to develop economical solutions to technical
problems. As a project cycles from an idea in the project charter to the implementation and delivery of
a product or service, engineers link scientific discoveries to commercial applications that meet societal
and consumer needs.

Engineers use many project management skills, especially when they must specify functional require-
ments. They demonstrate attention to quality as they evaluate a design’s overall effectiveness, cost, reli-

5 2nd Edition

ability, and safety similar to the project manager reviewing the criteria for the customer’s acceptance of
delivery of the product or service.

Estimation skills in project management are used in engineering. Engineers are asked many times to
provide an estimate of time and cost required to complete projects.

Health Care

There are many jobs and careers in health care that use project management skills. Occupations in the
field of health care vary widely, such as athletic trainer, dental hygienist, massage therapist, occupa-
tional therapist, optometrist, nurse, physician, physician assistant, and X-ray technician. These individ-
uals actively apply risk management in providing health care delivery of service to their clients, ensuring
that they do not injure the person they are caring for. Note: There is a section on nursing later in this

Many of you may have had a fall while you were growing up, and needed an X-ray to determine if
you had a fracture or merely a sprain. Let us look at this career as an example of a health care profes-
sional using project management skills.

Example: Radiology Technologists

Radiology technologists and technicians perform diagnostic imaging examinations like X-rays, com-
puted tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and mammography. They could also be
called radiographers, because they produce X-ray films (radiographs) of parts of the human body for use
in diagnosing medical problems.

Project management skills, especially people skills and strong communication, are demonstrated
when they prepare patients for radiologic examinations by explaining the procedure and what position
the patient needs to be in, so that the parts of the body can be appropriately radiographed. Risk man-
agement is demonstrated when these professionals work to prevent unnecessary exposure to radiation by
surrounding the exposed area with radiation protection devices, such as lead shields, or limiting the size
of the X-ray beam. To ensure quality results, the health technician monitors the radiograph and sets con-
trols on the X-ray machine to produce radiographs of the appropriate density, detail, and contrast.

Safety and regulations concerning the use of radiation to protect themselves, their patients, and their
coworkers from unnecessary exposure is tracked in an efficient manner and reported as a control to
ensure compliance. Project management skills are also used in preparing work schedules, …

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