The shoulder joint is also referred to as the glenohumeral joint; it can be described as a ball and socket joint that links the humerus to the scapula. It refers to the connecting joint between the trunk and the upper limb.
The movements that occur in the shoulder joint include the following:
Abduction occurs when the arm is moved away from the middle of the body, it is 150 degrees from the palms at your side for a normal shoulder—the prime mover in the middle region of the deltoid muscle.
Adduction – This refers to the movement of the arms toward the middle of the body as if you are hugging yourself. The prime movers of this movement are the latissimus dorsi and posterior fibers muscles of the deltoid.
Lateral rotation- This movement occurs when the arms move around their axis, it is an internal rotation of the shoulder joint. The prime mover is the posterior fibers and latissimus dorsi muscles of the deltoid.
Medial rotation – This refers to a shoulder movement that moves the limbs towards the midline; it is an example of internal rotation. The prime mover includes the posterior fibers and latissimus dorsi muscles of the deltoid.
Flexion – This movement occurs when an individual moves the arms from any point of rest to the sides and straight above the head. The prime mover is the pectoralis major muscle.
Extension – This involves the humerus’s movement in a lateral direction from the midline in its axis. The muscles which act as the prime mover include the posterior fibers and latissimus dorsi of the deltoid.
The antagonists of the shoulder joint movement include the following:
Pectoralis major – it antagonizes the middle deltoid anteriorly.
Latissimus dorsi- It antagonizes the middle deltoid posteriorly.
Lee, D. K., Kim, Y. N., Park, C. B., & Park, M. S. (2018). The effect of actively induced vibration using shoulder joint on pain and dysfunction in patients with low back pain. Journal of physical therapy science, 30(1), 23-26.
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