Hist 212 Modern Western Civilization

Sources of


Volume II: Since 1500

Sources of


Sixth Edition

Volume II: Since 1500


Southern Maine Community College

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Text acknowledgments and copyrights appear at the back of the book on
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Designed to accompany The Making of the West and The Making of the West,
Value Edition, Sources of The Making of the West is intended to help
instructors bring the history of Western civilization to life for their students.
This thoroughly revised collection parallels the major topics and themes
covered in each chapter of The Making of the West and offers instructors
many opportunities to promote classroom discussion of primary documents
and to help students develop essential historical thinking skills. By engaging
with primary sources, students will come to see that the study of history is not
fixed but is an ongoing process of evaluation and interpretation.

Guided by the textbook’s integrated narrative that weaves together social,
cultural, political, and economic history, each chapter brings together a
variety of source types illuminating historical experience from many
perspectives. This edition has been revised to include visual sources as well
as a new comparative source feature in every chapter, “Sources in
Conversation.” I have included more than thirty new sources that both
broaden and deepen coverage. With new documents covering perspectives
from Eastern Europe and the Middle East, a new emphasis on geographic and
quantitative sources, and new selections by essential authors from Cicero and
Dante to Wollstonecraft and Fanon, this edition provides sources for
instructors to consider the history of the West from within and without.

To assist students with their journey into the past, each chapter opens with
a summary that situates the sources within the broader historical context and
addresses their relationship to one another and to the main themes in the

corresponding chapter of The Making of the West, Sixth Edition. An
explanatory headnote accompanies each source to provide fundamental
context on the author or creator and the source while highlighting its
historical significance. Revised and expanded discussion questions guide
students through evaluating the sources, considering questions of context and
audience, and engaging with scholarly arguments. Each chapter concludes
with a set of comparative questions intended to encourage students both to
see how sources can inform and challenge each other and to prompt them to
make historical connections. These editorial features intentionally strengthen
the coherence of each chapter as a unit while allowing instructors to choose
sources and questions that best suit their specific goals and methods. Within
each chapter, the documents also were selected based on their accessibility,
depth in content, and appeal to students. For this reason, when necessary, I
have carefully edited documents to speak to specific themes without
impairing the documents’ overall sense and tone. I have also included
documents of varying lengths to increase their utility for both short class
exercises and outside writing assignments.

Of course, asking the right questions and finding the right answers is at the
heart of “doing” history. For this reason, Sources of The Making of the West,
Sixth Edition, begins with an introduction on how to interpret written and
visual primary sources that leads students step-by-step through the process of
historical analysis. A brief overview of what this process entails is followed
by an extended discussion of the process at work in the analysis of two
sources drawn specifically from this collection. I adopted this approach for
the Introduction to help students move easily from abstract concepts to
concrete examples. As a result, the Introduction does not rely on telling

students what to do but rather on showing them how to do it for themselves
based on the raw data of history.

New to This Edition
In response to instructors’ comments and recommendations, as well as new
scholarship, I have made several changes for the sixth edition. This edition
contains over thirty new written and visual sources that complement the
thematic and chronological framework of the textbook and highlight the
intellectual, emotional, and visual landscapes of many different peoples and
places. These sources have been selected to reflect an expanded
understanding of the West that allows us to consider key cultural, social,
political, economic, and intellectual developments in a new light and within
broader contexts. To that end, each chapter contains both visual sources and a
“Sources in Conversation” comparative source set. These paired sources
deepen the interpretive possibilities of the individual sources while providing
students more opportunities to develop their historical thinking skills. The
digital version of this collection, available in LaunchPad, goes even further
with assignable auto-graded multiple-choice questions to accompany each

In this edition, I have incorporated a wider variety of source types,
including more quantitative and visual sources, while focusing on themes that
carry across historical time periods. Students will examine historical
responses to inequality by analyzing records of an ancient Greek auction of
confiscated slaves, excerpts from the city of Norwich Poor Rolls of 1570, and
graphs that capture the current distribution of global wealth. They will engage
with different conceptions of world geography, ranging from the thirteenth-
century Hereford map to the nineteenth-century Imperial Federation map of
the British Empire. I ask students to consider how communities define

themselves through new sources, including a Greek Janiform flask, a
Levantine Torah niche, and a popular eighteenth-century ceramic motif, as
well as excerpts from Cicero’s In Defense of Archias, Hume’s Of National
Characters, and Fanon’s The Wretched of the Earth. Other new sources
ground history in the lives of everyday people, including a Roman household
shrine, a medieval Labors of the Month sculpture, a portrait of a family at tea,
and a firsthand account of Soviet collectivization. Finally, I invite students to
reflect on how we remember and memorialize history with Picasso’s
Guernica, photographer Nick Ut’s memory of capturing a famous Vietnam
photo, and Bosnian artist Aida Sehovic’s interactive memorial to the
Serebrenica genocide.

Many people deserve thanks for helping to bring this sixth edition to fruition.
First among them are the authors of The Making of the West: Lynn Hunt,
Thomas R. Martin, Barbara H. Rosenwein, and Bonnie G. Smith. Many
thanks as well to reviewers of the previous edition who provided valuable
insights and suggestions: Jean Berger, University of Wisconsin, Fox Valley;
Edwin Bezzina, Grenfell Campus Memorial University; Dorothea Browder,
Western Kentucky University; Eric Cimino, Molloy College; Courtney
Doucette, Rutgers University; Valeria L. Garver, Northern Illinois
University; Michael McGregor, Northern Virginia Community College;
Jennifer M. Morris, College of Mount St. Joseph; Jason E. St. Pierre,
University of Massachusetts, Lowell; Sarah L. Sullivan, McHenry County
College; Paul Teverow, Missouri Southern State University; Leigh Ann
Whaley, Acadia University; David K. White, McHenry County College; and,
Corinne Wieben, University of Northern Colorado.

I would also like to thank Anne Thayer, Jeannine Uzzi, Nancy Artz, and
Helen Evans for their expertise and editorial assistance with sources as well
as the team at Bedford/St. Martin’s: Michael Rosenberg, Bill Lombardo,
Leah Strauss, Evelyn Denham, Belinda Huang, Emily Brower, and Lidia


Introduction: Working with Historical Sources

CHAPTER 14 Global Encounters and the Shock of the Reformation,

1. Worlds Collide: Bernal Díaz del Castillo, The True History of the
Conquest of New Spain (c. 1567)

2. Illustrating an Indigenous Perspective: Lienzo de Tlaxcala (c. 1560)

3. Defending Indigenous Humanity: Bartolomé de Las Casas, In
Defense of the Indians (c. 1548–1550)

4. Scripture and Salvation: Martin Luther, Freedom of a Christian

5. SOURCES IN CONVERSATION | Reforming Christianity: John
Calvin, Ordinances for the Regulation of Churches (1547) and
Registers of Consistory of Geneva (1542–1543)

6. Responding to Reformation: St. Ignatius of Loyola, A New Kind of
Catholicism (1546, 1549, 1553)

CHAPTER 15 Wars of Religion and Clash of Worldviews, 1560–1648

1. Legislating Tolerance: Henry IV, Edict of Nantes (1598)

2. Barbarians All: Michel de Montaigne, Of Cannibals (1580s)

3. Defending Religious Liberty: Apology of the Bohemian Estates
(May 25, 1618)

4. Codifying Poverty: City of Norwich, Poor Rolls (1570)

5. The Scientific Challenge: Galileo, Letter to the Grand Duchess

Christina (1615)

6. SOURCES IN CONVERSATION | The Persecution of Witches:
The Witch of Newbury (1643) and The Trial of Suzanne Gaudry

CHAPTER 16 Absolutism, Constitutionalism, and the Search for
Order, 1640–1715

1. The Sun King: Louis de Rouvroy, Duke of Saint-Simon, Memoirs

2. SOURCES IN CONVERSATION | Regime Change: The Trial of
Charles I and The Confession of Richard Brandon the Hangman

3. Civil War and Social Contract: Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan (1651)

4. The Consent of the Governed: John Locke, The Second Treatise of
Government (1690)

5. Opposing Serfdom: Ludwig Fabritius, The Revolt of Stenka Razin

6. Genre Painting: Pieter Bruegel the Younger, A Village Kermis

CHAPTER 17 The Atlantic System and Its Consequences, 1700–1750

1. Captivity and Enslavement: Olaudah Equiano, The Interesting
Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano Written by Himself (1789)

2. SOURCES IN CONVERSATION | A “Sober and Wholesome
Drink”: A Brief Description of the Excellent Vertues of That Sober
and Wholesome Drink, Called Coffee (1674) and The Coffee House
Mob (1710)

3. A Domestic Drink: Richard Collins, A Family at Tea (c. 1726)

4. Westernizing Russian Culture: Peter I, Decrees and Statutes (1701–

5. Early Enlightenment: Voltaire, Letters concerning the English
Nation (1733)

6. Questioning Women’s Submission: Mary Astell, Reflections upon
Marriage (1706)

CHAPTER 18 The Promise of Enlightenment, 1750–1789

1. Rethinking Modern Civilization: Jean-Jacques Rousseau,
Discourse on the Origin and Foundations of Inequality among Men

2. An Enlightened Worker: Jacques-Louis Ménétra, Journal of My
Life (1764–1802)

3. Reforming the Law: Cesare Beccaria, On Crimes and Punishments

4. Reforming Commerce: Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature
and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776)

5. Enlightened Monarchy: Frederick II, Political Testament (1752)

Enlightenment: David Hume, Of National Characters (1754) and
Robert Hancock, The Tea Party (1756–1757)

CHAPTER 19 The Cataclysm of Revolution, 1789–1799

1. Defining the Nation: Abbé Sieyès, What Is the Third Estate?

2. The People under the Old Regime: Political Cartoon (1815)

3. Establishing Rights: National Assembly, The Declaration of the
Rights of Man and of the Citizen (1789)

Inclusion: Olympe de Gouges, Declaration of the Rights of Woman
(1791) and Mary Wollstonecraft, A Vindication of the Rights of
Woman (1792)

5. Defending Terror: Maximilien Robespierre, Report on the
Principles of Political Morality (1794)

6. Liberty for All?: Decree of General Liberty (August 29, 1793) and
Bramante Lazzary, General Call to Local Insurgents (August 30,

CHAPTER 20 Napoleon and the Revolutionary Legacy, 1800–1830

1. Napoleon in Egypt: The Chronicle of Abd al-Rahman al-Jabartî

2. Codifying French Law: Napoleon Bonaparte, The Civil Code
(1804) 384

3. The Conservative Order: Prince Klemens von Metternich, Results
of the Congress at Laybach (1821)

4. Challenge to Autocracy: Peter Kakhovsky, The Decembrist
Insurrection in Russia (1825)

5. SOURCES IN CONVERSATION | The Romantic Imagination:
Joseph M. W. Turner, Transept of Tintern Abbey (c. 1794) and
William Wordsworth, Lines Written a Few Miles above Tintern
Abbey (1798)

6. Musical Romanticism: Reviews of Beethoven’s Works (1799, 1812)

CHAPTER 21 Industrialization and Social Ferment, 1830–1850

1. Establishing New Work Habits: Factory Rules in Berlin (1844)

2. New Rules for the Middle Class: Sarah Stickney Ellis,

Characteristics of the Women of England (1839)

3. SOURCES IN CONVERSATION | The Division of Labor:
Testimony Gathered by Ashley’s Mines Commission (1842) and
Punch Magazine, Capital and Labour (1843)

4. What Is the Proletariat?: Friedrich Engels, Draft of a Communist
Confession of Faith (1847)

5. The Promise of Emigration: Gottfried Menzel, The United States of
North America, With Special Reference to German Emigration (1853)

6. Demanding Political Freedom: Address by the Hungarian
Parliament (March 14, 1848) and Demands of the Hungarian People
(March 15, 1848)

7. Imperialism and Opium: Commissioner Lin, Letter to Queen
Victoria (1839)

CHAPTER 22 Politics and Culture of the Nation-State, 1850–1870

1. Ending Serfdom in Russia: Peter Kropótkin, Memoirs of a
Revolutionist (1861)

2. Fighting for Italian Nationalism: Camillo di Cavour, Letter to King
Victor Emmanuel (July 24, 1858)

3. Realpolitik and Otto von Bismarck: Rudolf von Ihering, Two
Letters (1866)

4. Social Evolution: Herbert Spencer, Progress: Its Law and Cause

5. SOURCES IN CONVERSATION | The Science of Man: Charles
Darwin, The Descent of Man (1871) and Figaro’s London Sketch
Book of Celebrities (1874)

CHAPTER 23 Empire, Industry, and Everyday Life, 1870–1890

1. Defending Conquest: Jules Ferry, Speech before the French
National Assembly (1883)

2. Subverting Empire: Imperial Federation Map of the World (1886)

3. Resisting Imperialism: Ndansi Kumalo, His Story (1890s)

4. Global Competition: Ernest Edwin Williams, Made in Germany

5. The Advance of Unionism: Margaret Bondfield, A Life’s Work

6. SOURCES IN CONVERSATION | Artistic Expression: Edgar
Degas, Notebooks (1863–1884)

CHAPTER 24 Modernity and the Road to War, 1890–1914

1. Racialized Ideas of Evolution: Sir Francis Galton, Eugenics: Its
Definition, Scope, and Aims (1904) and International Eugenics
Conference Poster (c. 1921)

2. Tapping the Human Psyche: Sigmund Freud, The Interpretation of
Dreams (1900)

3. The Dreyfus Affair: Émile Zola, “J’accuse!” (January 13, 1898)

4. Militant Suffrage: Emmeline Pankhurst, Speech from the Dock

5. SOURCES IN CONVERSATION | Imperialism and Anti-
Imperialism: Rudyard Kipling, The White Man’s Burden and
Editorial from the San Francisco Call (1899)

6. Exalting War: Heinrich von Treitschke, Place of Warfare in the
State (1897–1898) and Henri Massis and Alfred de Tarde, The Young

People of Today (1912)

CHAPTER 25 World War I and Its Aftermath, 1914–1929

1. The Horrors of War: Fritz Franke and Siegfried Sassoon, Two
Soldiers’ Views (1914–1918)

2. Mobilizing for Total War: L. Doriat, Women on the Home Front

3. SOURCES IN CONVERSATION | Revolutionary Marxism
Defended: Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, The State and Revolution (1917)
and “He Who Does Not Work Does Not Eat” Plate (1921)

4. Establishing Fascism in Italy: Benito Mussolini, The Doctrine of
Fascism (1932)

5. A New Form of Anti-Semitism: Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf (1925)

CHAPTER 26 The Great Depression and World War II, 1929–1945

1. Collectivizing Farming: Antonina Solovieva, Sent by the
Komsomol (1930s)

2. Socialist Nationalism: Joseph Goebbels, Nazi Propaganda
Pamphlet (1930)

3. SOURCES IN CONVERSATION | The Spanish Civil War:
Eyewitness Accounts of the Bombing of Guernica and Pablo Picasso,
Guernica (1937)

4. Seeking a Diplomatic Solution: Neville Chamberlain, Speech on
the Munich Crisis (1938)

5. The Final Solution: Sam Bankhalter and Hinda Kibort, Memories
of the Holocaust (1938–1945)

6. Atomic Catastrophe: Michihiko Hachiya, Hiroshima Diary (August
7, 1945)

CHAPTER 27 The Cold War and the Remaking of Europe, 1945–

1. Stalin and the Western Threat: The Formation of the Communist
Information Bureau (Cominform) (1947)

2. Truman and the Soviet Threat: National Security Council, Paper
Number 68 (1950)

3. Throwing Off Colonialism: Ho Chi Minh, Declaration of
Independence of the Republic of Vietnam (1945)

4. The Psychology of Colonialism: Frantz Fanon, The Wretched of the
Earth (1961) 527

5. SOURCES IN CONVERSATION | The Condition of Modern
Women: Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex (1949) and Betty
Friedan, The Feminine Mystique (1963)

6. Cold War Anxieties: Life Magazine Cover and Letter from
President John F. Kennedy (1961)

CHAPTER 28 Postindustrial Society and the End of the Cold War
Order, 1960s–1989

1. Prague Spring: Josef Smrkovský, What Lies Ahead (February 9,

2. A Revolutionary Time: Student Voices of Protest (1968)

3. Children Fleeing from a Napalm Attack in South Vietnam: Nick
Ut, Photograph (June 8, 1972), and Vanity Fair Interview (2015)

4. The Rising Power of OPEC: U.S. Embassy, Saudi Arabia, Saudi
Ban on Oil Shipments to the United States (October 23, 1973)

5. Facing Terrorism: Jacques Chirac, New French Antiterrorist Laws
(September 14, 1986)

6. SOURCES IN CONVERSATION | Glasnost and the Soviet
Press: Nina Andreyeva, Polemics and Pravda Editorial, Principles of
Perestroika (1988)

CHAPTER 29 A New Globalism, 1989 to the Present

1. SOURCES IN CONVERSATION | Ethnic Cleansing: The Diary
of Zlata Filipović (March 5, 1992–June 29, 1992) and Aida Šehović,
ŠTO TE NEMA (Why are you not here?) (2017)

2. An End to Apartheid: The African National Congress, Introductory
Statement to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (August 19,

3. Changing Global Economies: World Bank, World Development
Indicators (2010)

4. Combating Climate Change: European Commission,
Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament
and the Council: The Road from Paris (2016) and Reactions to the
Paris Climate Agreement (2015)

5. Nationalism and the EU: Paresh Nath, European Nationalism
Cartoon (2017)

6. Remembering European History: Tony Judt, What Have We
Learned, If Anything? (2008)

Introduction: Working with Historical
The long history of Western civilization encompasses a broad range of places
and cultures. Textbooks provide an essential chronological and thematic
framework for understanding the formation of the West as a cultural and
geographical entity. Yet the process of historical inquiry extends beyond
textbook narratives into the thoughts, words, images, and experiences of
people living at the time. Primary sources expose this world so that you can
observe, analyze, and interpret the past as it unfolds before you. History is
thus not a static collection of facts and dates. Rather, it is an ongoing attempt
to make sense of the past and its relationship to the present through the lens
of both written and visual primary sources.

Sources of The Making of the West, Sixth Edition, provides this lens for
you, with a wide range of engaging sources — from Egyptian tomb art to an
engraving of a London coffeehouse to firsthand accounts of student revolts.
When combined, the sources reflect historians’ growing appreciation of the
need to examine Western civilization from different conceptual angles —
political, social, cultural, and economic — and geographic viewpoints. The
composite picture that emerges reveals a variety of historical experiences
shaping each era from both within and outside Europe’s borders.
Furthermore, the documents here demonstrate that the most historically
significant of these experiences are not always those of people in formal
positions of power. Men and women from all walks of life have also
influenced the course of Western history.

The sources in this reader were selected with an eye toward their ability
not only to capture the multifaceted dimensions of the past but also to ignite
your intellectual curiosity. Each written and visual source is a unique product
of human endeavor and as such is often colored by the personal concerns,
biases, and objectives of the author or creator. Among the most exciting
challenges facing you is to sift through these nuances to discover what they
reveal about the source and its broader historical context.

Interpreting Written Sources
Understanding a written document and its connection to larger historical
issues depends on knowing which questions to ask and how to find the
answers. The following six questions will guide you through this process of
discovery. Like a detective, you will begin by piecing together basic facts and
then move on to more complex levels of analysis, which usually requires
reading any given source more than once. You should keep these questions in
mind every time you read a document, no matter how long or how short, to
help you uncover its meaning and significance. As you practice actively
reading these texts and thinking critically about them, you will improve your
ability to read and think like a historian. Soon enough, you will be asking
your own questions and conducting your own historical analysis.

1. Who wrote this document, when, and where?
The “doing” of history depends on historical records, the existence of which
in turn depends on the individuals who composed them in a particular time
and place and with specific goals in mind. Therefore, before you can begin to
understand a document and its significance, you need to determine who wrote
it and when and where it was written. Ultimately, this information will shape
your interpretation because the language of documents often reflects the
author’s social and/or political status as well as the norms of the society in
which the author lived.

2. What type of document is this?
Because all genres have their own defining characteristics, identifying the
type of document at hand is vital to elucidating its purpose and meaning. For

example, in content and organization, an account of a saint’s life looks very
different from an imperial edict, which in turn looks very different from a
trial record. Each document type follows certain rules of composition that
shape what authors say and how they say it.

3. Who is the intended audience of the document?
The type of source often goes hand in hand with the intended audience. For
example, popular songs in the vernacular are designed to reach people across
the socioeconomic spectrum, whereas papal bulls written in Latin are directed
to a tiny, educated, and predominantly male elite. Moreover, an author often
crafts the style and content of a document to appeal to a particular audience
and to enhance the effectiveness of his or her message.

4. What are the main points of this document?
All primary sources contain stories, whether in numbers, words, and/or
images. Before you can begin to analyze their meanings, you need to have a
good command of a document’s main points. For this reason, while reading,
you should mark words, phrases, and passages that strike you as particularly
important to create visual and mental markers that will help you navigate the
document. Don’t worry about mastering all of the details; you can work
through them later once you have sketched out the basic content.

5. Why was this document written?
The simplicity of this question masks the complexity of the possible answers.
Historical records are never created in a vacuum; they were produced for a
reason, whether public or private, pragmatic or fanciful. Some sources will
state outright why they were created, whereas others will not. Yet, with or

without direct cues, you should look for less obvious signs of the author’s
intent and rhetorical strategies as reflected in word choice, for example, or the
way in which a point is communicated.

6. What does this document reveal about the particular
society and period in question?
This question strikes at the heart of historical analysis and interpretation. In
its use of language, its structure, and its biases and assumptions, every source
opens a window into its author and time period. Teasing out its deeper
significance will allow you to assess the value of a source and to articulate
what it adds to our understanding of the historical context in which it is
embedded. Thus, as you begin to analyze a source fully, your own
interpretive voice will assume center stage.

As you work through each of these questions, you will progress from
identifying the basic content of a document to inferring its broader meanings.
At its very heart, the study of primary sources centers on the interplay
between “facts” and interpretation. To help you engage in this interplay, let
us take a concrete example of a historical document. Read it carefully, guided
by the questions outlined above. In this way, you will gain insight into this
particular text while training yourself in interpreting written primary sources
in general.

1. Legislating Tolerance
Henry IV, Edict of Nantes (1598)

The promulgation of the Edict of Nantes in 1598 by King Henry IV (r. 1589–
1610) marked the end of the French Wars of Religion by recognizing French
Protestants as a legally protected religious minority. Drawing largely on
earlier edicts of pacification, the Edict of Nantes was composed of ninety-two
general articles, fifty-six secret articles, and two royal warrants. The two
series of articles represented the edict proper and were registered by the
highest courts of law in the realm (parlements). The following excerpts from
the general articles reveal the triumph of political concerns over religious
conformity on the one hand and the limitations of religious tolerance in early
modern France on the other.

Henry, by the grace of God, King of France, and Navarre, to all present, and
to come, greeting. Among the infinite mercies that it has pleased God to
bestow upon us, that most signal and remarkable is, his having given us
power and strength not to yield to the dreadful troubles, confusions, and
disorders, which were found at our coming to this kingdom, divided into so
many parties and factions, that the most legitimate was almost the least,
enabling us with constancy in such manner to oppose the storm, as in the end
to surmount it, now reaching a part of safety and repose for this state. … For
the general difference among our good subjects, and the particular evils of the
soundest parts of the state, we judged might be easily cured, after the
principal cause (the continuation of civil war) was taken away. In which
having, by the blessing of God, well and happily succeeded, all hostility and

wars through the kingdom being now ceased, we hope that we will succeed
equally well in other matters remaining to be settled, and that by this means
we shall arrive at the establishment of a good peace, with tranquility and rest.
… Among our said affairs … one of the principal has been the complaints we
have received from many of our Catholic provinces and cities, that the
exercise of the Catholic religion was not universally re-established, as is
provided by edicts or statutes heretofore made for the …

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